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29 Cards in this Set

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Define tissue.
Groups of cells w/ a common structure & function.
What type of tissue occurs as sheets of tightly packed cells that covers the outside of the body & lines organs & cavities w/ in the body?
Epithelial Tissue
Some absorb or secrete chemical solutions.
How does the epithelial tissue structure relate to its function?
Its structure is closely joine w/ little material b/w them & therefore enables the epithelium to function as a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes, & fluid loss.
What are the 2 criteria for classifying epithelia?
1)The number of cell layers
2)The shape of the cells on the exposed surface.
What are the 3 structures of epithelial tissue?
1)Cuboidal (like dice)
2)Columnar (like bricks standing on end)
3)Squamous (like floor tiles)
Shape of cells at the exposed surface.
What are simple epithelium?
A single layer of cells.
How many layers of cells?
What are stratified epithelium?
Multiple tiers cells.
How many layers of cells?
What is pseudostratified epithelium?
A single layer of cells but looks stratified b/c the cells vary in length.
Combonation of simple & stratified.
What tissue functions mainly to bind & support other tissues?
Connective Tissue
Opposite of epithelia.
How does the connective tissue structure relate to its function?
The sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix is how the connective tissue supports other tissues.
What are the 3 major types of connective tissue in vertebrates?
1)Adipose tissue (fat)
2)Cartilate
3)Bone
Other types are:
loose connective tissue,
fibrous connective tissue, &
blood
Among the cells scattered in loose connective tissue, what 2 types predominate?
1)Fibroblasts
2)Macrophages
Starts with an F & M
What are Fibroblasts?
They secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers.
What are Macrophages?
They are amoeboid cells that roam the maze of fibers, engulfing foreign particles & the debris of dead cells by phagocytosis.
"clean up" cells
What are the 3 connective tissue fibers?
1)Collagenous fibers
2)Elastic fibers
3)Reticular fibers
1)made of collagen, most abundent
2)long threads made of a protein called elastin
3)thin & branched,composed of collagen & joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues
What is muscle tissue composed of?
Long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting,usually stimulated by nerve signals.
What tissue is the most abundant in most animals?
Muscle Tissue
In the vertebrate body, what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
1)Skeletal
2)Cardiac
3)Smooth
Explain skeletal muscle.
Attached to bones by tendons, responsible for voluntary movement of the body, & also called striated muscle.
Explain cardiac muscle.
Forms the contractile wall of the heart, contractile properties, striated, & carries out unconcious tasks.
Explain smooth muscle.
Lacks striations, found in the walls of the digestive tract,urinary bladder, arteries,etc.,spindle shaped, contract slowly but contract longer, & responsible for involuntary body activities.
What is Nervous Tissue?
Senses stimuli & transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another.
What does it do?
What is the functional unit of nervous tissue?
The neuron, or nerve cell.
The flow of energy through an animal.
Bioenergetics
Ultimately limits the animal's behavior, growth,& reproduction & determines how much food it needs.
What is the Interstitial fluid?
The internal environment of vertebrates.
What kind of environment of vertebrates.
Describe the location & function of interstitial fluid.
Interstitial fluid is the fluid that fills the spaces b/w vertebrate cells.It exchanges nutrients & wastes w/ blood contained in microscopic vessels called calillaries.
Define homeostasis.
"steady state" or internal balance.
A change in the variable being monitored triggers the control mechanism to counteract further change in the same direction.
Negative feedback
When the thermometer detects a temperature above the set point, the thermostat switches the heater off.
Involves a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change.
Positive feedback
During childbirth,the pressure of the baby's head against receptors near the opening of the uterus stimulates uterine contractions, which cause greater pressure against the uterine opening, heightening the contractions,which causes still greater pressure.This feedback brings childbirth to completion.