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13 Cards in this Set

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What do biologists often call an animal's size and shape?
Body plans or designs
Fundamental aspects of form and function that significantly affect the way an animal interacts with its environment.
Anatomy
What is the study of the structure of an organism?
Physiology
What is the study of functions an organism performs.
What is 1 use of an animal's energy resource?
Regulate its internal environment.
Homeostasis
What is bioenergetics?
How organisms obtain, process, and use their energy resources.
All animals must solve a common set of problems, which are?
Animals as different as hydras, halibut(large flatfishes),& humans must obtain oxygen, nourish themselves, excrete waste products,& move.
There are 4 common problems.
What limits the the evolution of an organism's form?
Physical requirements constrain what natural selection can "invent," including the size & shape of flying animals.
What direct effect does size & shape have on an animal?
How the animal exchanges & materials w/ its surroundings.
Interaction with the environment.
What is the requirement for maintaining the fluid integrity of the plasma membrane?
To be bathed in an aqueous medium.
The only way a cell can function & exchange w/ the environment is if it is...
What are designs that maximizes exposure to the surrounding medium?
1)A hydra has a gastrovascular cavity that opens to the exterior(which allows both inner & outer layers of cell to be bathed in water)
2)A flat body shape(b/c a tapeworm is very thin, most of its cells are bathed in the intestinal fluid of the worm's vertebrate host, the source of nutrients)
There are 2 designs.
What are 2 designs that put a large SA in contact with the environment?
Two-layered sacs & flat shapes
What facilitates an exchange w/ the environment in whales & most other animals?
Extensively folded or branched internal surfaces.
Internal surfaces...
What are the distinct benefits for complex body forms?
Protection against predators; large muscles to move rapidly;& internal digestive organs break down food gradually, controlling the release of stored energy.