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41 Cards in this Set

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What are segments of nucleic acids contained in a protein coat?
Viruses
________ are smaller than bacteria, ranging from 20-250 nm.
Viruses
Why are viruses not considered living?
They don't
-grow
-maintain homeostasis
-they don't metabolize
Who purified TMV?
(wendell) stanley
What did he find out?
He purifified the TMV virus, a crystal, a property of chemicals, and it could infect healthy plants. They concluded TMV was a chemical, not an organism. They reassembled the TMV's protein and RNA to make the virus able to infect plants.
This virus protein coat many contain either RNA or DNA.
Capsid
The membrane surrounding the capsid in many viruses, such as the Influenza one. It helps the virus enter the cell, too.
Envelope
Envelopes consist of ..
Proteins, Lipids, Glycoproteins (proteins with attached Carb. molecules that are derived from the host cell).
Shapes of viruses ....
Enveloped
Helical
Polyhedral ( most have 20 faces and 12 corners). Most efficient one that can hold the viral genome.
Example of each shape ..
Influenza
TMV
Adenovirus
Viruses that infect bacteria are known as __________. They contain a polyhedron capsid attached to a helical tail. A long DNA molecule is also coiled w/i the polyhedron.
bacteriophages
The viral DNA which inserts into a host cell's chromosome.
Provirus.
True/False: Viruses often attack at favorable times for themselves ..
True
How is AIDS transmitted?
Blood, pregnancy, breast milk, semen, and vaginal secretions.
What does AIDS stand for
Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome.
Name the 7 unique characteristics of bacteria.
Internal compartmentalization
cell size
multicellularity
chromosomes
reproduction
flagella
metabolic diversity
Name the 3 shapes of cells
Bacillus (rod)
Spirillum (spiral)
Coccus (round)
Outside the cell wall and membrane, many bacteria have a gel-like layer called a __________.
capsule.
_____________ are chemicals that interfere w/ life processes in bacteria.
antibiotics
some bacteria form thick-walled _________ around their chromosomes and a small bit of cytoplasm when they are exposed to harsh conditions.
endospores
____________ is a process in which two organisms exchange genetic materia.
conjugation
Three unique structures of bacterial cells:
cell walls
endospores
pili
Give examples of each shape o' cell shape.
Bacillus: e. coli
Coccus: Micrococcus luteus
Spirillum: Spirillum volutans
Over __________ species have been named.
4,000
There are at least ________ phyla of eubacteria and _____ of archaebacteria.
12, 4
What conditions/actions do Photosynthetic bacteria use?
They live in ANAEROBIC environments. They can't use water for photo. but use sulfur compounds, like H-sub2-S
Name some types of Photosynthetic bacteria
-purple nonsulfur, green sulfur, purple sulfur, cyanobacteria (02 in envir.)
What conditions/actions do Chemoautotrophic bacteria require?
They obtain energy from removing electrons from (in)organic molecules. If they have hydrogen, they can manufacture all their own amino acids and proteins. Ones that live in soil are important to agriculture. They oxidize things like ammonia to nitrate.
What conditions/actions do Heterotrophic bacteria require?
aerobic/aerobic+anaerobic
They are the main decomposers of soil, can be harmful to humans, or helpful.
What do E. Coli use for locomotion??
flagella
e. coli single/multi
single
gram +/-
negative
Other things to know.... peptidoglycan. Reproduction by binary fision as fast as ____ min.
20
Pili imp. b/c?
adhere to surfaces
join bacterial cells prior to conjugation
_____ are poisonous to eukaryotic cells.
toxins
A person who eats food that contains Clostridium botulinum and becomes ill from this disease is called a ___________.
botulist.
Symptums =
double vision and paralysis
Flemming noticed that fungus was secreting a bacteria called __________. This allowed to treat many bacterial diseases, like pneumonia.
penicillium
true/false Chemoautotrophic bacteria can convert the sulfur into a soluble compound, leaving the desired mineral behind.
True!
______ are particles that are composed of proteins and have no nucleic acid.
prion
A _________ is a single strand of RNA that has no capsid.
viroid