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34 Cards in this Set

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What are Monosacchrides?
Mobile sugar units.They usually are a (1:2:1) ratio. made of carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen.They are hydrophilic
Name 3 monosaccharides.
1. Glucose
2. galactose
3. fructose
What are disaccharides?
Disaccharides are 2 monosaccharides formed through dehydration synthesis. Example: A glucose and a fructose monosaccharide loose a water molecule through dehydration synthesis and form sucrose.
Name 3 common disaccharides?
1. Sucrose
2. Maltose
3. Lactose
What are polysaccharides?
They are long chains of monosaccharides. They are polymers of sugar.
What are polymers?
Many repeating similar units.

*Remember, not all polymers are created equal.
Name 3 common polysaccharides.
1. Starches: examples are plants, fruits, vegetables, grains and pasta.
2. Cellouse: It is a fiber, a polymer of monosaccharides associated with the cell wwall of plants. It is not digestable.
3. Glycogen: A highly branched polymer. It is the main form of carbohydrate storage in amimals and occurs in the liver and skeletal muscl fiber.
What are some functions of lipids or fatty acids?
* provide a energy boost.
* provide insulation tp control body temp.
* creates padding for several organs. adapose tissue. composed of C1H1O the ratio may vary.
* They are hydrophobic.
Name 5 lipids or fatty acids.
1. Saturated fatty acids
2. Unsaturated fattyacids
3. Triglycerides
4. Phospholipids
5. Steroids
What are saturated fatty acids?
they are polymers of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They are saturated meaning they cant hold any more hydrogen atoms. they are usually found in solids like crysco or butter.
What are unsaturated fatty acids?
They contain bouble bonds so they can accept more hydrogen atoms. They are usually found in products like canola oil, or saffola oil.
What are triglycerides?
They have 3 fatty acid chains.
They are the most common found lipid in the body.
They are stored and broken down for energy. they are located in the adipose tissue.
What are phospholipids?
Lipids that contain 2 fatty acid chains. They are ascoiated with glycerol. also theyy contain a phosphate group. they play a huge roll in forming cell membranes.
what are steroids?
Large lipid molecules composed of 4 rings of carbon atoms.
What is the best known steroid?
Cholestrol it comes from our diet or our body produces it. it formes some hormones such as testrogen, Estrogen and progesterone
What is the difference between LDL and HDL? Describe each.
*low-density lipoprotein
n. Abbr. LDL
A lipoprotein that contains relatively high amounts of cholesterol and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Also called LDL cholesterol. LDL hovers

*high-density lipoprotein
n. Abbr. HDL
A lipoprotein that contains relatively small amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides and is associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Also called alpha-lipoprotein, HDL cholesterol. HDL floats
1.Spell DNA.
2.What is th e 3 dimential shape of DNA called?
3. What type of bonds hold DNA strands together?
1. Deoxribonucleic acid
2. Double Helix
3. They are weak bonds of hydrogen.
What are the different nitrogenous bases of DNA?
* Adanine and Thamine, held together by 2 hydrogen bonds
* Cytosine and Guanine, held together by 3 hydrogen bonds.
What is the backbone of DNA?
Alternating (deoxyribose or sugar)and phosphate groups
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid. it is composed of a single strand. Thymine is replaced by uracil. Uracil is the nytrogenist base.
Name at least 6 different functions of proteins?
1. create structure. ie. Karatin and collagen
2. Blood messengers ie. Hormones.
3. Transportation. They move materials.
4.muscle movement. myosin and Actin
5. Immune recognition. Defense
6. enzymes
Give examples of structural(fibrous) and globular (functional) protein.
1. Structuran/fibrous: Karatin found in skin or hair
2. Globular/functional: Hemoglobin carries oxtgen to the tissue.
What is the difference between essential and non- essential amino acids?
1. Essential AA's the body can't produce.
2. Non essential AA's the body can produce

NOTE: Both are esential for body functions.
1. What are the building blocks of proteins?
2. How many are there?
3. Are they essential?
1. Amino acids
2. 20
3. Yes they are essential
Be able to explain how enzymes function?
Enxymes are bilogical catalysts.They drive chemical reaction within the body at normal bodt temperature. they are most important of all the body's proteins. Amost everything that happens inside the human body does so because of specific enzymes. ie. 2 sbstrates bind to the active sites on the enzyme the substrates interact with each other to form a product.then break away from the enzyme. Enzymes can also break intermolecular bonds.
What two factors affect enzyme stability? How do the changes affect the enzyme function?
1. temperature: an increase in temperature can destrpy the amino acids peptide bonds. ie. when you fry an egg the clear runny protein becomes white and solid. this process is called denaturing.
2. PH: If the PH shifts outside normal limits the proteins change shape and the enzyme function deteriorates.
what type of bonds do enzymes build?
they build covalent bonds.
What is a covalent bond?
covalent bond
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons, especially pairs of electrons, between atoms.
What is a hydrogen bond?
hydrogen bond
A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine atom, usually of another molecule.
How many sides does a sugar molecule have?
What are minerals?
inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. ie. calcium, sodium, phousphorous.
Whar are Ions?
A Atom or molecule having a positive or negative charge due to the gain or loss of an electron.
What are electrolights?
Soluble inorganic compoundswhos ions conduct an electrical current in a solution
What is PH?
The negative exponent of a hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in moles per liter. PH can be acidic or base. A PPH of 0 is Acidic a PH of 14 is basic Oven cleaner and bleach are examples of a basic PH.