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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Atmospheric pressure (Patm)
the pressure of the outside air; normal is 760 mmHg
Intra-alveolar pressure
the pressure of air w/in the alveoli
Intrapleural pressure
the pressure inside the pleural space
Transpulmonary pressure
the difference btwn the interpleural pressure & the intra-alveolar pressure
functional residual capacity
When the lungs are at rest all breathing muscles are relaxed, and the volume of air in the lungs under these conditions is called __________ _________ _________.
air in the interpleural space

when air gets into interpleural space the suction is lost and the lung recoils or collapses.
Intra-alveolar pressure
________-________ __________ is determined by the quantity (moles) of air molecules in the alveoli & the volume of alveoli themselves.
contraction of the diaphram causes it to flatten & move downward

Meanwhile, contraction of the obliquely oriented external intercostals causes the ribs to pivot upward & outward, expanding the chest wall.
As the chest wall and lungs recoil, the volume of the lungs decrease causing alveolar pressure to increase to greater than atmospheric pressure.
1. the pressure gradient btwn the atmosphere & alveoli
2. airway resistance
The rate at which air flows into or out of the lungs is determined by 2 factors:
A measure of the EASE w/which they can be stretched.
transpulmonary pressure
Lung compliance needs a smaller change in ___________ _______ to bring in a given volume of air, and work or muscle contraction needs to done.
Lung compliance
depends on the elasticity of the lungs, and on the surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli.
surface tension
The greater the _______ _______, the more work needed to spread the fluid out.
air-liquid interface
The surface tension of the lungs is caused by the __________ ________ formed by the thin layer of fluid lining the internal surface of the alveoli.
fluid layer
As the lung expands, so does the _______ ______ in the alveoli.
As the lungs expand, _____ is required not only to stretch the elastic tissue but also to increase the surface area of the fluid layer.
The surface tension acts to _________lung compliance.
pulmonary surfactant
a detergent like substance that decreases the surface tension in the alveoli.
type II alveolar cells
secretes pulmonary surfactant which are located in the walls of alveoli
airway resistance
the resistance of the entire system of airways in the respiratory tract

it is analogous w/ total peripheral resistance in cardiovascular physiology.
Airway resistance
______ _________ is determined primarily by the resistancesof individual airways and is affected most strongly by changes in the airway radius.
As _______ decreases, airway resistance increases.
The increase in ____________ pressure that occurs during inspiration pulls outward on the airways, causing them to distend, which decreases resistance as inspiration continues.
During __________, the transpulmonary pressure _________, which reduces the distending force on airways and allows them to contract, thereby increasing the resistance.
Sympathetic stimulation
__________ stimulation causes relaxation of the smooth muscles and increases the radius of bronchioles (called ____________), whereas _____________stimulation causes contraction of the smooth muscle and bronchoconstriction.
__________ released from the adrenal medulla during sympathetic stimulation also causes bronchodilation.
__________ causes contraction of the smooth muscle, resulting in bronchoconstriction.