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45 Cards in this Set

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hematocrit
the fraction of the blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells.
buffy coat
btwn the plasma & erythrocytes there is a thin layer of leukocytes & platelets called the _______ ______.
hematocrit
The __________ is useful clinical measure because it indicates whether a person has a normal complement of erythrocytes.
Polycythemia
a high hematocrit indicaes a higher than normal concentration of erythrocytes in the blood.
Plasma
_______ is an aqueous solution in which a great variety of solutes are dissolved.
protein
nitrogenous waste products
small nutrients
gases
electrolytes
What are the solutes of plasma?
water
makes up 90% of plasma volume

provides dissolving and suspending medium for solutes and formed elements.
proteins
albumin
globulins
fibrogens
enzymes
hormones
antibacterial proteins
proteins
accounts for 8% of plasma (by weight)

most are synthesized by liver
Albumin
60% of plasma proteins
largely responsible for plasma oncotic pressure
Globulins
36% of plasma proteins
Include clotting proteins, anitbodies secreted by certain leukocytes during the immune response, and proteins that bind to lipids, fat-soluble hormones, and metal ions to transport these substances in the blood.
Fibrogen
Important in the formation of blood clots.
nitrogenous waste products
By-products of metabolism, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
Organic nutrients
Materials absorbed from the intestines and used by cells throught the body

includes glucose and other simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol, triglycerides, cholesterol, and vitamins.
Electrolytes
cation
anions
cations
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, magnesium (important in neuromuscular signaling) and tracing metals (important in normal enzyme activity)
anions
Chloride (important in neuromuscular signaling), bicarbonate, and phosphate (important in maintenance of normal plasma pH).
Respiratory gases
Oxygen and Carbon dioxide

Most oxygen and some carbon is bound to hemoglobin in erythrocytes
A significant fraction of CO2 is found in the plasma in the form of bicarbonate.
permeability
The difference in concentration is maintained by low ___________ of capillary walls to proteins, which limits proteins' ability to move out of the plasma.
Serum
plasma from which fibrinogen and other clotting proteins have been removed.
Erythrocytes
red blood cells that are the most abundant in the blood, numbering about 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood.
Erythrocytes
lack nuclei, mitochondria, and other organelles, such as ribosomes that are necessary for manufacturing proteins.
erythrocytes
shaped like discs
biconcave discs
spectrin
The shape of erythrocytes is due to the presence of a cytosolic protein called _________.
spectrin
_________ is a fibrous protein that form a network linked to the plasma membrane .
spectrin net
is flexible, giving erythrocytes the abilit to bend and flex as necessary to move through capillaries that are sometimes smaller in diameter than the erythrocytes.
erythrocytes
major function is to transport oxygen and CO2 in the blood for exchange w/ body cells and lung tissue.
hemoglobin
carbonic anhydrase
Erythrocytes have a high capacity for carrying these gases because they contain in their cytoplasm 2 proteins: ___________ &_____________ ____________
Hemoglobin
binds and transports CO2 and 02
Carbonic anhydrase
transport of CO2 only
Hemoglobin
__________ is the most abundant protein in erythrocytes
Composed of 4 polypeptide chains (2 alpha & 2 beta)
heme group
Each of polypeptide chains of hemoglobin has an iron - containing ring structure
O2
The iron from the heme group is the site where a molecule of _________ binds.
CO2
_______ _______ binds reversibly to A.A.'s w/in the polypeptide chains.
iron
The ______ in the hemoglobin is oxidized and gives hemoglobing a red color, which is responsible for the red color of erythrocytes and blood.
Carbonic anhydrase
_________ __________ is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CO2 and H20 to carbonic acid.
120
Once the erythrocytes are released into the bloodstream, they remain there for only about _____ days.
cell division
They have no nucleus nor any organelles, and thus they cannot undergo ____ ________.
erythrocytes
New ___________are produced on a regular basis, at a rate of approximately 2-3 million per second or 200 billion a day!
Erythropoesis
spleen
The bone marrow has the enormous task of producing these erythrocytes by a process called __________, while the _______ removes the old erythrocytes from the blood.
hematopoetic stem cells
All blood cells develop from precursor cells called ____________ _____ ______, located in the bone marrow.
Erythrocytes & Leukocytes
these come to full maturity in the bone marrow
T lymphocytes
must migrate to the thymus gland before they develop to maturity.
hematopoetic growth factors (HGF's)
The development of a particular type of blood cell depends on cytokines called _________ _______ ______.
HGF's
The ______ involved in leukocyte production include colony-stimulating factors and interleukins.