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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Arrangement Problem
Requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specified criterion
-objects can be arranged several ways but only 1 or few arrangements form a solution
Requires rearranging a string of letters to form a word
Skills needed to solve arrangement problems
1)Fluency in generating possibilities
2)Retrieval of solution patterns
3)Knowledge of principles that constrain the search
Sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem
-Suddenness of solution: distinguishes insight from other forms of discovery
Functional Fixedness
Tendency to use an object in a typical way-To perceive an object in terms of only its most common use
-Think of an object as functioning only in usual way
Dunker's Candle Problem
Shows how functional fixedness can influence performance
-Goal: place 3 candles eye level on a door
Inducing Structure Problem
Requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations
-Relation is fixed, problem is to discover it
-Objects are given and task is to determine how they're related
Analogy Problem
4 term problem that requires finding answer that completes the relation: A is to B as C is to D
-Solving problem by using a solution to a related problem
-Major heuristic for solving problems
-Depends more on LTM
Transformation Problem
Requires changing the initial state through a sequence of operations until it matches the goal state
-Provides goal state
-Requires skills in planning--Means-End Analysis
Means-End Analysis
Strategy that can be used to solve transformation problems by eliminating differences between the initial and goal states
-General problem solver
Problem Space
Set of choices evaluated at each step in solving a problem as determined by the problem solver
An action that is selected to solve problems
Strategy helpful in solving problems-often but not always
(eg)Working backward, means end analysis
Set of rules that will solve a problem if correctly followed
-Correct answer is guaranteed if rules followed correctly
(eg)Rules for multiplication
Solves part of the problem
-problem states intermediate-between the initial and the goal state
-subgoals aren't obvious
-may create confusion about next step
-explicity pointing out subgoals make them more effective