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15 Cards in this Set

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 Arrangement Problem Requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specified criterion -objects can be arranged several ways but only 1 or few arrangements form a solution Anagram Requires rearranging a string of letters to form a word Skills needed to solve arrangement problems 1)Fluency in generating possibilities 2)Retrieval of solution patterns 3)Knowledge of principles that constrain the search Insight Sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem -Suddenness of solution: distinguishes insight from other forms of discovery Functional Fixedness Tendency to use an object in a typical way-To perceive an object in terms of only its most common use -Think of an object as functioning only in usual way Dunker's Candle Problem Shows how functional fixedness can influence performance -Goal: place 3 candles eye level on a door Inducing Structure Problem Requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations -Relation is fixed, problem is to discover it -Objects are given and task is to determine how they're related Analogy Problem 4 term problem that requires finding answer that completes the relation: A is to B as C is to D -Solving problem by using a solution to a related problem -Major heuristic for solving problems -Depends more on LTM Transformation Problem Requires changing the initial state through a sequence of operations until it matches the goal state -Provides goal state -Requires skills in planning--Means-End Analysis Means-End Analysis Strategy that can be used to solve transformation problems by eliminating differences between the initial and goal states -General problem solver Problem Space Set of choices evaluated at each step in solving a problem as determined by the problem solver Operator An action that is selected to solve problems Heuristic Strategy helpful in solving problems-often but not always (eg)Working backward, means end analysis Algorithm Set of rules that will solve a problem if correctly followed -Correct answer is guaranteed if rules followed correctly (eg)Rules for multiplication Subgoal Solves part of the problem -problem states intermediate-between the initial and the goal state Limitations: -subgoals aren't obvious -may create confusion about next step -explicity pointing out subgoals make them more effective