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15 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Arrangement Problem

Requires rearranging its parts to satisfy a specified criterion
objects can be arranged several ways but only 1 or few arrangements form a solution 

Anagram

Requires rearranging a string of letters to form a word


Skills needed to solve arrangement problems

1)Fluency in generating possibilities
2)Retrieval of solution patterns 3)Knowledge of principles that constrain the search 

Insight

Sudden discovery of a solution following unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem
Suddenness of solution: distinguishes insight from other forms of discovery 

Functional Fixedness

Tendency to use an object in a typical wayTo perceive an object in terms of only its most common use
Think of an object as functioning only in usual way 

Dunker's Candle Problem

Shows how functional fixedness can influence performance
Goal: place 3 candles eye level on a door 

Inducing Structure Problem

Requires finding a pattern among a fixed set of relations
Relation is fixed, problem is to discover it Objects are given and task is to determine how they're related 

Analogy Problem

4 term problem that requires finding answer that completes the relation: A is to B as C is to D
Solving problem by using a solution to a related problem Major heuristic for solving problems Depends more on LTM 

Transformation Problem

Requires changing the initial state through a sequence of operations until it matches the goal state
Provides goal state Requires skills in planningMeansEnd Analysis 

MeansEnd Analysis

Strategy that can be used to solve transformation problems by eliminating differences between the initial and goal states
General problem solver 

Problem Space

Set of choices evaluated at each step in solving a problem as determined by the problem solver


Operator

An action that is selected to solve problems


Heuristic

Strategy helpful in solving problemsoften but not always
(eg)Working backward, means end analysis 

Algorithm

Set of rules that will solve a problem if correctly followed
Correct answer is guaranteed if rules followed correctly (eg)Rules for multiplication 

Subgoal

Solves part of the problem
problem states intermediatebetween the initial and the goal state Limitations: subgoals aren't obvious may create confusion about next step explicity pointing out subgoals make them more effective 