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69 Cards in this Set

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What are the organs of the endorcine system
Adrenal Gland, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroid glands, pineal gland, pituitary gland, testes thymus gland, thyroid gland
Acr/o ?
extremities
aden/o?
adren/o?
gland
adrenal gland
andr/o?
cal/o?
crin/o?
male
calcium
secrete
estro/o?
kal/i?
female
potassium
glyc/o?
gonad/o?
home/o?
sugar
sex glands
sameness
natr/o?
ophthalm/o?
pineal?
sodium
eye
pineal gland
pituitar/o?
somat/o?
thym/o?
pituitary gland
body
thymus gland
thyr/o?
tox/o?
thyroid gland
poison
crine?
to secrete
ex. endocine
dipsia?
thrist
ex. polydispia
emia?
blood condition
ex. hyperkalemia
tropin?
stimulate
ex. adrenocorticotropin
uria?
urine condition
ex. polyuria
endocrine system?
collection of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream.
The body has two types of of glands?
exocrine and the endocrine glands
what does the exocrine glands do?
they release their secretions into a duct that carries them to the outside of the body, ex. sweat glands.
what does the endocrine gladns do?
release hormones directly into the bloodstream. ex. the thyroid gland enters into the bloodstream. They are ductless glands.
The endocrine systems consists of what glands?
two adrenal glands, two ovaries, four parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal, pituitary, two testes, thymus, and the thyroid glands.
The two adrenal glands are located where?
above each kidney
the adrenal glands are composed of what?
the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
The outer layer of the adrenal cortex manufactures what hormones?
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and steroid sex hormones.
the mineralocorticoid hormone (aldosterone) regulates what?
sodium, potassium levels in the body.
The glucocorticoid hormone (cortisol) regulates what?
carbs in the body
The adrenal cortex of both men and women secrete steroid hormones of what?
androgens and estrogen and proesterone
The adrenal medulla is responisbile for secreting what?
epinephrine and norepinephrine. these hormones are critical during emergency situations.
epinephrine does what to the body in an emergency?
increases heart rate blood pressure respiration levels.
what are gonads?
organs(female) that produce gametes(reproductive sex cells).
The ovaries produce what?
estrogen and progesterone
Progesterine does what?
helps to maintain suitable uterine environment for pregnancy.
Where is the pancreas located?
lower curvature of the stomach
Pancreas is the only organ in the body that contains what?
both endocrine and exocrine functions
The exocrine portion of the pancreas does what?
releases digestive enzymes through a duct into the small intestines.
The endocrine part of the pancreas contains what?
islets of Langerhans
What does the islets of langerhans do?
produce: insulin and glucagon
insulin stimulates the cells of the body to do what?
take glucose from the bloodstream.
loss or impairment of the function of insulin is what?
diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia(high blood sugar)
Overproduction of insulin is what?
hypoglycemia
Whats the difference bw type 1 and type 11 diabetes
Type1 there is destruction to the islet cells and the person cannot produce enough insulin, type2 the person makes sufficient amount of insulin but ut has losts its ability to influence the cells of the body.
The four tiny parathyroid glands are located where?
dorsal surface of the thyroid gland.
the parathyroid gland does what?
regulates the amount of calcium in the blood.
if calcium levels are low the parathyroid will do what?
the hormone will increase in the blood and will stimulate bone breakdown to release more calicum.
The pineal gland is where
pine cone shaped gland located in the brain
the pineal gland secretes what? What does it do?
melatonin, and it regulates the body's circadian rhythm( our 24 hour clock)
Where is the pituitary gland located?
underneath side of the brain
The pituitary gland is divided how?
anterior lobe and posterior lobe. both of these are conrtolled by the hypothalamus
The anterior pituitary gland does what?
growth hormone(somatotropin), Thyroid-stimulating hormone(tsh)regulates function of hormone, adrenocorticotropin regulates the adrenal cortex, Prolactin(PRL) stimulates milk production in breast, follicle-stim. horm.& luteinizing horm influence male and female gonads, Melanocyte-stim. horm. to porduce more melanin(darkening skin).
The posterior pituitary gland does what?
secretes 2 horm: antidiuretic horm.(adh)and oxytocin. adh is also called vasopressin, promotes water reabsorption by the kidney. oxytocin stim. urine contractions during labor and delivery and milk.
The thymus is apart of what system? and what hormo. does it release?
immune system, and releases thymosin.
Where is the thymus located?
what is its main purpose?
mediastinal cavity anterior and posterior to the heart.
immune system in newborns and is largest during puberty.it creates T-Cells.
The thyroid gland is located where?
butterfly shape around the the trachea and larynx
WHat does the thyroid produce?
horm: thyroxine(T4)and triiodothyronine(T3), formed in the thyroid from the mineral iodine.also calcitonin.
what does the horm, of the thyroid do?
regulates the production of energy and heat in the body.
calcitonin is secreted in response to hypercalcemis(too high calicum levels)
adrenomegaly?
adrenaloectomy?
androgen?
enlarged adrenal gland
excision of adrenal glands
male forming
hypercalcemia
endocrinopathy
excessive calcium in blood
endocrine sys. disease
hypocalcemia
hyperkalemia
low calicum in blood
excessive potassium in blood
hyponatremia
parathyroidectomy
low sodium in the blood
excision of the parathyroid gland
Thyrotoxicosis
euthyroid
abnormal cond. of poising by the thyroid
normal thyroid
hyperthyroidism
hypothyroidism
thyroidotomy
state of excessive thyroid
state of low thyroid
incision of thyroid gland
polydipsia
glycosuria
many thrist
sugar in urine
edema
exophthalmos
body tissues contain excessive fluids

eyeballs protude(graves disease) overproduction of thyroid.
gynecomastia
hirsutism
males develop breast tissue

excessive amount of hair
hypersecretion

hyposecretion
excessive hormone production

deficient horm prod
acidosis

cretinism
excessive acid of body fluids

lack of thyroid devep. resulting in arrested physical and mental devep.
Cushing's syndrome

acromegaly
named after Harvey Cushing results from hypersecretion of the adrenal gland of the adrenal cortex. (tumor in the gland)
chronic disease(adults) elongation and enlargement of bones of head and extremities.
addison's disease

adenocarinoma
deficiency in adrenocortical horm. increased pigmentation of skin, weakness, weight loss

cancerous tumor in a gland, cause of hypersecretion pathologies.
diabetes retinopathy

goiter
secondary complication of diabetes that affects the blood vesseks of the retina, visual changes and blindness

Enlargement of thyroid gland
hashimoto's disease

myxedema
chronic form of thyroiditis(named after jap. surgeon)

hypofunction of the thyroid, causes anemia, slow speech, etc.
tetany

von Recklinghausen's
painful muscle cramps due to hypocalcemia

Excessive production of parathyroid horm. results in degeneration of bones.