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234 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Site of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
Capillaries
cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals
Grey matter
axons
White matter
cerebral cortex with lower levels of brain or spinal cord
Projection fibers
connect two areas of cerebral cortex on same side of brain
Association fibers
connect same cortical regions on two sides of brain
Commissural fibers
primary location of commissural fibers
Corpus callosum
How many total Spinal nerves
31
how many Cervical
8
How many Thoracic
12
How many Lumbar
5
How many Sacral
5
how many Coccygeal
1
Motor coordination and balance
coordination of eye/body movements
Cerebllum
Connects forebrain and cerebellum to spinal cord
Brainstem
connects to forebrain
Midbrain
connects to cerebellum
pons
connects to spinal cord
medulla
Creativity
Spatial perception
Right brain specializations
Logic
Analytical abilities
Language
Left brain specializations
Inhibit unwanted movements
Selecting purposeful movements
Postural support
Basal Nuclei
Automatic patterned response to a stimulus
Reflexes
Pateller tendon
Stretch reflex
Input to Motor Neurons
Afferents (as in reflexes)
Pyramidal tract neurons
Extrapyramidal tract neurons
Pyramidal Tract
All motor pathways outside pyramidal tracts
Supportive voluntary movement of the proximal extremities
Indirect input to motor neurons
Several pathways
Extrapyramidal Tracts
Upper motor neurons
Originate in primary motor cortex
Direct input to motor neurons (some through interneurons)
Most cross to contralateral side in medullary pyramids
Pyramidal Tract
Feedback control of motor function
Contributes to muscle tone
Stores programs for remembered activities
Motor coordination
Feedback control of voluntary movements
Select purposeful over unwanted movements
Basal Nuclei in Motor Control
Genetic disorder of basal nuclei
-Loss of motor coordination
-Increased involuntary motions
-Advanced stages- loss of cognitive functions
Huntington’s Chorea
Disease of basal nuclei
-Lack of dopamine in substantia nigra
-Rigidity- slow stiff movements
-Involuntary movements or tremors
-Stooped, shuffling gait
-Difficulty initiating/stopping movements
Parkinson’s Disease
2 language areas
WErnicke and broca's area
Language comprehension
Wernicke’s aphasia
Wernicke area
Language expression
Broca’s aphasia
Broca's area
induces low wave sleep
adenosine (blocked by caffeene)
Forebrain
induces REM sleep
acetylcholine
pons
Fear
Anxiety
Amygdala
Anger
Aggression
Hypothalamus
Strong motivating emotion
centers contain dopamine
can be addictive
Pleasure
acquisition of new information
learning
retention of information, skills, or thoughts
memory
Associate 2 stimuli
Associate learning
Habituation
Sensitization
Non-Associative learning
Implicit
Automatic response not requiring conscious effort
Learned motor skills & behaviors
Cerebellum involved
Procedural Memory
Explicit
Learned facts, events, & experiences
Requires conscious effort for recall
Hippocampus involved
Declarative Memory
Specialized nerve ending or separate cell that detects a sensory stimulus
Receptor
transducers.
They convert one type of energy into another type of energy.
Receptors
Conversion of stimulus energy
into electrical energy
Transduction
energy form of stimulus
Modality
Receptor function
transduction
modality for which receptor is specific; modality to which receptor is most sensitive
Adequate stimulus
Sensation produced by activation of more than one type of receptor
Compound Sensations
Change in membrane potential in response to a stimulus acting on a sensory receptor
Receptor Potentials
Graded potential
Caused by opening/closing ion channels
If greater than threshold, can generate action potentials
Receptor Potentials
Decrease in amplitude of receptor potential over time in presence of a constant stimulus
Adaptation
Corresponding decrease in frequency of action potentials
Decreases perception of stimulus
Adaptation
Specific neural pathway for each sense
Lable line theory
Single afferent neuron and all its receptor endings
Sensory Unit
All receptors are of the same type
Sensory unit
Region over which application of the adequate stimulus can produce a response in the afferent neuron
Receptive Field
2 things to look for when determining Coding for stimulus type
Receptor type activated
Specific pathway
2 things to look for when determining Stimulus intensity
Frequency of action potentials
Recruitment = Population coding
Stronger stimulus activates more receptors
recruitment
what to look for when determinig that Coding of Stimulus Location
Based on receptive fields in somatic senses and vision
-Size of receptive field
-Degree of overlap
Lateral inhibition
associated with skin
Somesthetic Sensations
awareness of body’s position in space
Proprioception
Somatosensory Receptors
Mechanoreceptors
Thermoreceptors
Nociceptors
Vibration (glabrous skin)
Pacinian corpuscle
Vibration (hairy skin)
Meissner’s corpuscle
Bending of hair
Hair follicle receptor
Pain; intense mechanical, thermal; specific chemicals
Free nerve endings
Superficial pressure
Merkel’s disk
Deep pressure
Ruffini’s ending
Rapidly-adapting Mechanoreceptors
Pacinian corpuscle
Meissner’s corpuscle
Hair follicle receptor
Slowly-adapting
Mechanorecptors
Free nerve endings
Merkel’s disk
Ruffini’s ending
Free nerve endings
Respond to temperatures from 30-43oC
Increase frequency with increase in temperature
Warm receptors
Possible free nerve endings
Respond to temperatures from 35-20oC
Increase frequency with decrease in temperature
Cold recptors
2 receptors of thermalreceptors
warm and cold
Free nerve endings
A delta or C fibers
Mechanical
Thermal
Polymodal
Nociceptors
Dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathway
Spinothalamic tract
Somatosensory Pathways
Sensation produced by tissue damaging stimulus or stimulus that can potentially cause tissue damage
Pain response
elicits sensation, autonomic responses, emotional responses
pain
depends on past experiences
pain
A delta fibers
Sharp pricking sensation
Well localized
Fast pain
C fibers
Dull aching
Poorly localized
slow pain
Pathway for pain: A delta or C
Afferent
spinothalamic tractv
Specific Pathways
to reticular formation, hypothalamus, limbic system
Non-specific Pathways
Pain originating in internal organs
Sensation “referred” to body surface
Visceral Pain
Perception of pain varies depending on circumstances and past experiences
Modulation of Pain
One neuron between CNS and effector organ
Motor neuron
Somatic nervous system
Synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
Neuromuscular Junction
specialized muscle membrane at junction
Motor end plate
release acetylcholine
all motor neruons
are nicotinic cholinergic receptors
Receptors on skeletal muscle cells
Activation of motor neuron depends on
summation of EPSPs/IPSPs
Both branches of the autonomic nervous system innervate most effector organs
Dual Innervation Of autonomic nervous system
Primary function—regulate organs to maintain homeostasis
Dural innervation of Autonomic nervous system
rest
parasympathetic nervous system
flight or fight
sympathetic nervous system
What are the 2 nerurons in the CNS
Preganglionic neuron
Postganglionic neuron
Communication from preganglionic to postganglionic neuron
Intrinsic neurons
Autonomic ganglia
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Glands
Adipose tissue
Effector organs
most diverse of the glial cells, development of neural conncections
reg. developme and mantenance of synapses
modulate synaptic activity
remove neurotransmiiters
clear glutamate
Astroyctyes
protect the central nervous sysem from foreign matter through phagoctyoss and release of cytokines
microgilia
Synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber
Neuromuscular Junction
specialized muscle membrane at junction
Motor end plate
release acetylcholine
all motor neruons
are nicotinic cholinergic receptors
Receptors on skeletal muscle cells
Activation of motor neuron depends on
summation of EPSPs/IPSPs
Both branches of the autonomic nervous system innervate most effector organs
Dual Innervation Of autonomic nervous system
Primary function—regulate organs to maintain homeostasis
Dural innervation of Autonomic nervous system
rest
parasympathetic nervous system
flight or fight
sympathetic nervous system
What are the 2 nerurons in the CNS
Preganglionic neuron
Postganglionic neuron
Communication from preganglionic to postganglionic neuron
Intrinsic neurons
Autonomic ganglia
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
Glands
Adipose tissue
Effector organs
most diverse of the glial cells, development of neural conncections
reg. developme and mantenance of synapses
modulate synaptic activity
remove neurotransmiiters
clear glutamate
Astroyctyes
protect the central nervous sysem from foreign matter through phagoctyoss and release of cytokines
microgilia
Possible free nerve endings
Respond to temperatures from 35-20oC
Increase frequency with decrease in temperature
Cold recptors
2 receptors of thermalreceptors
warm and cold
Free nerve endings
A delta or C fibers
Mechanical
Thermal
Polymodal
Nociceptors
Dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathway
Spinothalamic tract
Somatosensory Pathways
Sensation produced by tissue damaging stimulus or stimulus that can potentially cause tissue damage
Pain response
elicits sensation, autonomic responses, emotional responses
pain
depends on past experiences
pain
A delta fibers
Sharp pricking sensation
Well localized
Fast pain
C fibers
Dull aching
Poorly localized
slow pain
Pathway for pain: A delta or C
Afferent
spinothalamic tractv
Specific Pathways
to reticular formation, hypothalamus, limbic system
Non-specific Pathways
Pain originating in internal organs
Sensation “referred” to body surface
Visceral Pain
Perception of pain varies depending on circumstances and past experiences
Modulation of Pain
One neuron between CNS and effector organ
Motor neuron
Somatic nervous system
thin layer of the gray matter
cerebral cortex
axons
nerve fibers
connect 1 region of gray matter to another
nerve fibers
connect the crebral cortex w/lower levels of the brain or the spinal cord
projection fibers
connect regions of the cortex w/gray matter in teh spinal cord
corticospinal tracts
connect 1 area of crebral cortex to another area of the cortex on teh SAME SIDE OF TEH BRAIN
association fibers
connect 2 regions known as Broca's area and Wernicke's area
arcuate fasciculus
connect cortical regions on 1 side of teh brain w/corresponding cortical regions on the otehr side
commissural fibers
commissural fibers are locatred in this band of tissue
corpus callosum
connect the 2 halves of the cerebrum
cerebral hamisphers
cylinder of nervous tissue that is continous w/the lower end of the brain and is surrounded by the vertebral column
spinal cord
nervs that emerge from the vertebral column in the neck region
cervical nerves
emerge in the cchest region
thoracic nerves
emerge in the region of the lower back
lumbar nerves
emerge from the region of teh tailbone or coccyx
sacral nerves
emerges from the tip of the coccyx
coccygeal nerve
served by a particular spinal nerve
dermatomes
emerge frm teh brain rather than from the spinal cord
cranial nerves
encompasses the dorsal half othe gray matter on either side, afferent fibers, sensory receptors
dorsal horn
concompasses the ventral half,efferent, form synapses w/skeletal msucles
ventral horn
bundles containing afferent axons
dorsal roots
bundles containing effeernt axons
ventral roots
contain both afferent and effernt axons
mixed nerves
transmit ifo from spinal cord to brain
ascending tracts
transmit info from brain to spinal cord
descending tracts
all tracts are
bilaterals
descending pathways that ransmit motor commands to efferent neruons on both sides of the spinal cord
pyramidal tracts
pahtway remains on the same side as its orgin
ipsilateral
pathway crosses to the side oppostie its orgin
contralateral
borebrain, crebellum, brainstem
brain
larges and most superior part of the brain, left and right halves, crebrum and diencephalon
forebrain
larg, roght c shaped stucture contain both gray and white matter. Gray= crebral cortex
crebrum
consists of the thalamus and hypothalaums, 2 midline stuctures located near the base of the forebrain
diencephalon
bialterally symmetrical structure, w/an outer cortex and inner nuclei. function in motr coordination and balance, feedback to morto systems to ensure smooth movements of the eyes and body
crebellum
caudalmost part of the brain and connects the forebrain and crebellum to the spinal cord
brianstem
most rostral portion, connect to the forebrain
midbrain
middle protion, connect to the crebellum
pons
most caudal portion, connects to the spinal cord
medulla oblongata
peripheral nerves the emanate directly from the brain rather than the spianl cord
cranial nerves
diffuse network of nuclei importnat ini sleep wake cycles arousal of cerebral cortex and consiciousness
reticular formation
most advanced area of the brain
cerebral cortex
cerebral hemispheres is divded into 4 regions
lobes
occipital lobe
visual cortex
temmporal lobe
auditory cortex
involved in the processing of somatic snesory info associated w/both surface sensation (touch,...awareness of msucle tensions and joint and limb positions
primary somatosensory cortex
involved in more complex processing that requires integratin diff. types of info
assocaiton areas
notable fro thier role in modifiying movement a
basal nuclei
cluster of nuceli
thalmus
regualt homeostatsis
hypothamlmus
divers collection fo closely associate cortical regions, function in learning and emotsion
limbic system
an automatic patterened response to a sensory stimulis
reflex
highest level of integration occurs in the spinal cord
spianl reflexes
invovle signals sent via somatic neurons to skeletal muscle
somatic
invovle signals sent via autonomic neurons to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands
visceral, autonomic reflexes
inbonr
innate
learned
conditioned
one 2 neurons and a single synaps
monsynaptic
contain more than 2 neruons and multiple synapses
polysnaptic
5 compartments
sensory receptor
afferent neuron
integration center (CNS)
efferent neuron
effector organ
relfex arcs
excites muscle spindles in that msucle, therby triggering action potentials that travel in afferent neurons to the spinal cord
muscle spindle stretch reflex
portion of the body is subjected to a painful stimulus, withdraws from the stimulus automatically
withdrawal reflex
respond to intense stimuli that are damaging to tissue
nociceptors
signals trigger contraction fo the extensor muscles and relaxation of teh flexor muscles in that leg, so that when the 1st leg is withdrawn in response to a pianful stimulus, other leg is extended to support the body
crossed-extensor reflex
efferent neurons orginate in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
lower motor neruons
direct pahways from the primary motro cortex to the spinal cord
pyramidal tracts
all motor control pahways outside the pyramidal system, indirect connections b/w the brain and spinal cord, influence muscles of the turnk, neck and proximal portions of the limbs
extrapyramidal tracts
stimultaneous transmission of the smae general type of info along sparate neural pathways
parallel processing
difficulty understnading lanugeage spoken or written, can speak words, but words make no sense
wernicke's aphasia
comprehend language and know what they want to say, but cannot make the correct sounds or wirte the correct word
broca's aphasia
decrease in response to a repeated stiumulus
habituation
increase in resonse to repeated stimulus
sensitization
memory of learned mootor skills and behaviors
procedural memory
memory of learned experiences, facts and events and otehr things that can be stated verbally
declarative memory
lmited ability to alter its anotmy and function in resonse to changes in its activity patterns
plsiticty
function of snesory receptors
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another
sensory transduction
receptors convert the energy of a sensory stimulus into changes in membrane potentials
receptor potentials, generator potentials
response declines w/the passages of time
adaptation
adapt quiclky and thsu function best in detectin changes in stimulus intensity
rapidly adapting, phasic receptors
specific neural pathways that transmit info pertaining to a particular modality
labeled lines
single afferent neuron and all the receptors assocated with it
sensory unit
corresponds to the region containing recceptors for that afferent neuron
receptive field
precision with withch the loaction of a stimulus is perceived
acuity
stimulus that strongly excites receptors ina give loaction inhibits activint in the afferent pathway of other nerby recpetors
lateral inhibition
detect pressure, force or vibration
mechanoreceptors
detect temp
thermoreceptoes
dectect tissue damaging stimuli
nociceptors
transmit info from mechanoreceptors nd propriceptors
dorsal-column medial lemniscal pathway
dull and aching, transmitted by c fibers
slow pain
sharp, prickling sensation
fast pain
brain's ability to block pain
analgesia
neuron communticate with each other through synapses located in peripheral sturcutres
autonomic ganglia
neurons tha ttravel from the CNS to the ganglia
preganglionic neurons
neuron that travel from the ganglia to the effector organs
postganglionic neurons
neurons that release the more common of the 2 actylocholine,
cholinerginc
neurons that release norpinephrine
adrenergic
2 major classes of adrenergic receptor locatid in effector organs of the SNS
alpha and beta receptors
automatic hcanges inthe functions fo organs that occur in response to changing conditions w/in the body
visceral relfexes
each branch of a mortor neuron synapses w/ a skeletalmuscle fiber at a single highly specialized central region of teh fiber
neuromuscluar junction
axon terminals
terminal boutons
opposite terminal boutons is specialized region of teh muscle bier's plamsa membrane
motor end plate