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52 Cards in this Set

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___________is the study of drugs (chemicals) that alter functions of living organisms
Pharmacology
_________ Is the study called pharmacotherapy, is the use of drugs to prevent diagnose or treat signs symptoms and disease processes.
Drug Therapy
Drugs given for therapeutic purposes are called _____________.
Medications
Individual drugs that represent groups of drugs are called ____________
Prototypes
____________ involves the costs of drug therapy, storage and administration; laboratory and other tests used to monitor client responses and losses due to expiration.
Pharmacoeconomics
Designates drugs that must be prescribed by a licensed physician or nurse practitioner and dispensed by a pharmacist
Durham Humphrey Amendment
Regulates the manufacture, distribution advertising, and labeling of drugs
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938
Regulates the manufacture and distribution of narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and anabolic steroids
Controlled Substances Act
Often indicates the drug group
Generic name
Name designated the patented by the manufacturer
Trade or Brand name
Since 1962 Newly developed drugs have been extensively tested before being marked for general use. Clinical trails are conducted in four phases, which are given below in random order. Write the correct sequence in which they are performed in the boxes provided.

a. A few doses are given to certain number of healthy volunteers to determine safe dosages, routes of administration, absorption, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

b. Studies help to determine whether the potential benefits of the drug outweigh the risks.

c. A few doses are given to a certain number of subjects who have the disease or symptom for which the drug is being studied, and responses are compared with those of healthy subjects.

d. The FDA evaluates the data from the first three phases for drug safety and effectiveness, allows requires manufacturers to continue monitoring the drugs effects.
a, c, b, d
Medications maybe given for local effects. Give an example of a drug that exhibits its effects locally, and identify the action of the medication.
Drugs with local effects such as sunscreen lotions and local anesthetics, act mainly at the site of application.
Medications may be given for systemic effects. Explain the mechanism of action for a systemic medication.
Drugs with systemic effects are taken into the body, circulated through the blood stream to their sites of action in various body tissues and eventually eliminated form the body.
Identify the advantages of synthetic drugs
Synthetic drugs are more standardized in their effects, and less likely to produce allergic reactions.
Describe why biotechnology is an important source of drugs.
The process of biotechnology involves manipulating deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and recombining genes into hybrid molecules that can be inserted into living organisms (escherichia coli bacteria are often used) and repeatedly reproduced. Eash hybrid molecule produces a genetically identical molecule, called a clone.
Describe the impact of cloning on biotechnology
Cloning makes it possible to identify the DNA sequence in a gene and to produce the protein product encoded by the gene, such as insulin. Cloning also allows production of adequate amounts of the drug of therapeutic or research purposes.
____________ is the study of drugs (chemicals) that alter functions of living organisms.
Pharmacology
______________ also called pharmacotherapy, is the use of drugs to prevent, diagnose, or treat signs, symptoms, and disease processes.
Drug Therapy
Drugs given for therapeutic purposes are called____________
Medications
Individual drugs that represent groups of drugs are called
Prototypes
_________ involves the costs of drug therapy, which include the costs of purchasing, dispensing, storage, and administration; laboratory and other tests used to monitor client responses; and losses due to expiration.
Pharmacoeconomics
Designates drugs that must be prescribed by a licensed physician or nurse practitioner and dispensed by a pharmacist.
Durham Humphrey Amendment
Regulates the manufacture distribution advertising and labeling of drugs.
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938
Regulates the manufacture and distribution of narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and anabolic steroids
Controlled Substances Act
Often indicates the drug group
Generic name
Name designated and patented by the manufacturer
Trade or brand name
Since 1962 newly developed drugs have been extensively tested before being marked for general use. Clinical trials are conducted in four phases, which are given below in random order. Write the correct sequence in order.

a. A few doses are given to a certain number of healthy volunteers to determine safe dosages, routes of administration, absorption, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

b. Studies help to determine whether the potential benefits of the drug outweigh the risks.

c. A few doses are given to a certain number of subjects who have the disease or symptom for which the drug is being studies, and responses are compared with those of healthy subjects.

d. The FDA evaluates the data from the first three phases for drug safety and effectiveness, allows the drug to be marketed for general use, and requires manufacturers to continue monitoring the drugs effects.
a, c, b, d
Medications may be given for local effects. Give an example of a drug that exhibits its effects locally, and identify the action of the medication.
Drugs with local effects such as sunscreen lotions and local anesthetics act mainly at the site of application.
Medication maybe given for systemic effects. Explain the mechanism for action for a systemic medication.
Drugs with systemic effects are taken into the body circulated through the blood stream to their sites of action in various body tissues, and eventually eliminated from the body
Identify the advantages of synthetic drugs
Synthetic drugs are more standardized in their chemical characteristics, more consistent in their effects, and less likely to produce allergic reactions
Identify the advantages of synthetic drugs.
The process of biotechnology involves manipulating deoxribonucleic (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and recombining genes into hybrid molecules that can be inserted into living organisms (Escherichia coli bacteria are often used) and repeatedly reproduced. Each hybrid molecule produces a genetically identical molecule called a clone.
Describe why biotechnology is an important source of drugs.
Cloning makes it possible to identify the DNA sequence in a gene, such as insulin. Cloning also allows production of adequate amounts of the drug for therapeutic or research purposes.
The FDA approves many new drugs annually. New drugs are categorized according to their review priority and therapeutic potential. A new accelerated basis would be identified as which of the following?

a. 1P

b. 1D

c. 1A

d. 1S
d
The FDA approves drugs for OTC status, including the transfer of drugs from prescription to OTC status. Which of the following are characteristic of prescription drugs that are delegated to OTC status? (Select all that apply)

a. They may be administered at a higher dosage than the prescription.

b. They maybe administered at a higher dosage than the prescription.

c. They may be administered at a lower dosage than the prescription.

d. They may be used for different indications than the original prescription medication.
b,c,d
Having drugs available OTC has potential advantages and disadvantages for consumers. Which of the following is one of the advantages?

a. Reliable self diagnosis

b. increased diagnosis of the identified illness

c. Faster and more convenient access to effective treatment

d. reduction of possible drug interactions.
c
When prevention or cure is not a reasonable goal, relief of symptoms can do which of the following(Select all that apply)

a. Improve a clients quality of life.

b. Eliminate pain

c. Improve ability to function in activities of daily living.

d. decreased dependence on drugs
a,c
Drugs are classified according to which of the following features?

a. Name

b. Therapeutic uses

c. Side effects

d. Actions
b
The names of therapeutic classification usually reflect which of the following?

a. Actions of the medication

b. Conditions for which the medication is used

c. Possible averse reactions to the medications.

d. Possible generic names for the medication.
b
How are drugs prescribed and dispensed?

a. By generic name only

b. By trade name only

c. By prescription

d. By generic or trade name
d
Once a drug is patented, which of the following is true?

a. The drug may be manufactured by other companies.

b. The drug may be manufactured by other companies under a generic name.

c. The drug may not be manufactured by other companies until the patent expires.

d. The drug may be marketed by other companies.
c
The main goal of current drug laws and standards is to ensure which of the following?

a. That the drugs are available to all regardless of cost.

b. That drugs marked for therapeutic purposes are safe and effective.

c. That drugs are cost effective.

d. That drugs are patented.
b
Fill in the blank: The ____________ regulates vaccines and other biologic products.
The Public Health Service regulates vaccines and other biologic products. The Federal Trade commission can suppress misleading advertisements of nonprescription drugs.
What does the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and control Act regulate?

a. Classifications of narcotics

b. Acceptable diagnosis for prescription of narcotics

c. Manufacture and distribution of narcotics.

d. Abuse of narcotics
c
Which of the following are nurses responsible for? (select all that apply)

a. Storing controlled substances in locked containers.

b. Reporting discrepancies in narcotic inventory to the physician.

c. Recording prescribed controlled substances on medication administration records.

d. Maintaining an accurate inventory of narcotics.
a, c, d
Individuals and companies that are legally empowered to handle controlled substances must do which of the following? (select all that apply)

a. Keep accurate records of all transactions.

b. Be registered with the DEA

c. Be registered with the FDA

d. Maintaining an accurate inventory of narcotics.
a,b, d
The national institutes of Health Revitalization Act stipulates which of the following?

a. Men must be included in drug research studies.

b. Women and minorities must be included in drug research studies.

c. Animal testing must be completed prior to human drug testing.

d. Animal testing is not needed prior to human drug testing.
b
Since 1962, newly developed drugs have been extensively tested before being marketed for general use. To test drugs, drug companies initially do which of the following?

a. Test the drugs with animals.

b. Test the drugs with humans.

c. Test the drugs in a controlled laboratory experiment.

d. Test the drugs on volunteers.
a
FDA approval of a drug for OTC availability includes which of the following?

a. Analysis of the cost of the drug to the consumer.

b. Evaluation of evidence that the consumer can use the drug safely, using information on the product label.

c. Studies involving the safe use of the medication by the consumer.

d. Analysis of the diagnoses for which the medication may be used by the consumer.
b
Which of the following should a beginning student of pharmacology use as the primary source of drug data?

a. The internet

b. the pharmacology text

c. A drug book

d. A palm pilot
d
Fill in the blank: A or An _____________ is an inactive substance similar in appearance to the actual drug.
placebo
Which of the following is designated by the Durham Humphrey Amendment?

a. Drugs that may be administered by a nurse.

b. Drugs that may be designated as OTC

c. Drugs that must be prescribed by a licensed physician

d. Drugs that must be given in conjunction with other drugs to be effective.
c
Fill in the blank: The ___________ is charged with enforcing the law regarding administration of medications.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)