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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Tympanic Membrane?
Ear Drum
What part of ear captures sound and helps determine an object's location?
Pinna
What is the ear's actual hearing mechanism?
cochlea
What are the three bones that act as a mechanical lever called?
ossicles
What part of the ear explains why we are sensitive to mid-range frequencies?
ear canal
How does aural reflex work?
It cause the muscles to tighten reducing the movement of the ossicles
What is the purpose of the aural reflex?
To prevent hearing damage or damage to the cochlea
What is the function of the cilia?
Sound receptory/analyzers
Which listening mode explains our ability to understand conversation?
Semantic listening
Which listening mode helps us understand the source of sound?
casual listening
Which listening mode allows us to understand the meaning or context of sound?
Referential Listening
Which listening mode provides a fundamental overview of the sound?
Reduced Listening
What does the Equal Loudness Curve Illustrate?
Ear sensitivity to frequencies or to various frequencies.
What frequency range are humans most sensitive to?
mid-range frequency 2KHz-4KHz
What effect most effectively reproduces sounds heard in a large room?
Echo
Which effect most effectively reproduces sounds heard in a small room?
Reverb
Which Psychoacoustic principles descibes why every instrument sounds unique?
Timbre
What does the Psychoacoustic principle "temporal delay" refer to?
Directionality meaning sounds arrive at each air slightly delayed.
What is "sound shadow"?
A creation for different Timbre for each ear.
When listening to music, loud frequencies may "cover up" softer sounds. Which psychoacoustic prinples does this best describe?
Frequency Masking
Which gestalt principle explains how we are able to distinguish the melody line from the drum beat in a song?
Figure and Ground
Our minds associate sounds with objects. What Psychacoustic princple describes this?
Belongingness
What is a beat frequency?
Two different tones that are slightly out of tune create a phantom 3rd tone.
What is the cocktail Party Effect?
Using temporal delay & line of sight.
Drummer often experience a phenomenon in which their heart rates begin to match the tempo of the drum beat they are playing. Which Psychoacoutsic princple explains why this may occur?
Entrainment
Which gestalt principle explains how we are able to distinguish the melody line from the drum beat in a song?
Figure and Ground
Our minds associate sounds with objects. What Psychacoustic princple describes this?
Belongingness
What is a beat frequency?
Two different tones that are slightly out of tune create a phantom 3rd tone.
What is the cocktail Party Effect?
Using temporal delay & line of sight.
Drummer often experience a phenomenon in which their heart rates begin to match the tempo of the drum beat they are playing. Which Psychoacoutsic princple explains why this may occur?
Entrainment
Which gestalt principle explains how we are able to distinguish the melody line from the drum beat in a song?
Figure and Ground
Our minds associate sounds with objects. What Psychacoustic princple describes this?
Belongingness
What is a beat frequency?
Two different tones that are slightly out of tune create a phantom 3rd tone.
What is the cocktail Party Effect?
Using temporal delay & line of sight.
Drummer often experience a phenomenon in which their heart rates begin to match the tempo of the drum beat they are playing. Which Psychoacoutsic princple explains why this may occur?
Entrainment
Which category of musical instruments involves striking, plucking, or strumming strings?
Chordophones
How do Idiophones make sound?
Vibration
Which category of musical instruments invovles beating, slapping, hitting and stretching animal skin or synthetic membrane?
Membranophones
How do electrophones produce sound?
With electric/amplification
What produces the sound in an aerophone?
Vibrating column of air
Trombone
Aerophones
Membranophones
Tabla
Rhodes
Electrophones
Viola
Chordophones
Cymbal
Idiophones
Djembe
Membranophones
Basson
Aerophones
Tuba
Aerophones
Piano
Chordophones
Double Bass
Electrophones
Marimba
Idiophones
Clavinet
Electrophones
French Horn
Aerophones
Wurlitzer
Electrophones
The theremin utlilizes a concept called heterodyning in order to create sound. What is heterodying?
Beat frequency created
Djembe
Membranophones
Basson
Aerophones
Tuba
Aerophones
Piano
Chordophones
Double Bass
Electrophones
Marimba
Idiophones
Clavinet
Electrophones
French Horn
Aerophones
Wurlitzer
Electrophones
The theremin utlilizes a concept called heterodyning in order to create sound. What is heterodying?
Beat frequency created
What type of synthersizer allows the user to physically patch multiple components together in unlimited combinations in order to create unique sounds?
Modular
Early synthesizers were monophonic. How many notes could monophonic synthesizer play at one time?
One note at a time. Plays multiple notes but only sounds one.
How does a synthesizer work?
Artificially creates Harmonic contents of real sounds. It produces various tones which are then amplified.
What is a "Harmonic Series"?
Mathematical relationship between fundamentals and harmonics.
The timbre of an instrument is determined by its fundamental frequency and its ___________?
Harmonics
According to the harmonics series, an object's fundamental frequency will be _____ if the 5th harmonic is 500 Hz.
10x
Which of the synthesizer components is the tone generator?
Oscilators
What are the basic analog synthesizer waveforms?
Sine wave; Square wave; triangle wave; sawtooth wave
Which of the synthesizer components is used to remove harmonics from a sound?
filter
What is the purpose of the resonance control on a filter?
To provide more presence
What is the function of an Envelope Generator?
Component effecting sound over-time.
What is an LFO?
LFO is an oscilator that may be employed to vary the volume of sound over time.
How do you determine the frequency of a sine wave ?
By how many cycles it has.
How do you determine the actual sample rate illustrated in an example?
By counting how many dots or snapshots are on the diagram.
How do you determine the quantization value of the third sample?
By finding the values placement then rounding down.
how do you determine the complete bitstream in an example?
By listing the bitstream in the order of there value.
What concept determines the highest frequency that we can accurately digitize?
Nyquist theory
Nyquist theory:
Sample rate has to be equal to or greater than 2x the highest frequency recorded.
What is the quantization value used to describe?
Its binary value which represents an audio signal @ a given point in time.
What does a digital audio file's sample rate refer to?
How many sample or snapshots are taken of a waveform.
What is a quantization error?
The difference between the analog signal & digitized value; this is where amplitude values are not exact.
According to the Nyquist theory, what sample rate is needed to accurately record a frequency of 96 kHz?
48
Accordng to the Nyqusit theory, what sample rate is needed to accurately record a frequency of 96 kHz?
192
How many distinct values can a 16-bit recording represent?
65.536
What is the resolution of a Red Book Audio CD?
44.1 kHz
What is the bit depth of a DVD-Audio disc?
24 bits
What is Aliasing?
Violation of the Nyquist Theory
High end DAWS use additional DSP cards to handle heavy processor functions such as effects. Which DAW system does this descibe ?
PRO Tools
Which DAW system utilizes a computer's own processing power in order to process digital effects?
Cubase
Many long discontinued synthesizers are being reborn as software emulations for desktop and laptop computers. What are these synths called?
Virtual Instruments
According to lecture, Cubase SX is an example of which type of DAW?
Host Based
Digidesign Pro Tools HD is an example of which type of DAW?
Hardware Based
What is the 3rd party plug-in?
Plug-in made by another company/manufacturer/ oustide programmers.
What is the basic Plug-in format used by DAWs?
VST (cubase); Audio Units (Mac); RTAS (Pro tools LE & Pro tools); Direct X (PC); HD-TDM (Pro Tools HD only)
What is the function of an Envelope Generator?
Component effecting sound over-time.
What is an LFO?
LFO is an oscilator that may be employed to vary the volume of sound over time.
How do you determine the frequency of a sine wave ?
By how many cycles it has.
How do you determine the minimum sample rate needed to accurately digitize an example?
taking the cycles value or the frequency and doubling it.
How do you determine the actual sample rate illustrated in an example?
By counting how many dots or snapshots are on the diagram.
How do you determine the word length of each of an example?
There can only be two possibilites. Either 1 or 0; on or off.
How do you determine the quantization value of the third sample?
By finding the values placement then rounding down.
how do you determine the complete bitstream in an example?
By listing the bitstream in the order of there value.
What concept determines the highest frequency that we can accurately digitize?
Nyquist theory
Nyquist theory:
Sample rate has to be equal to or greater than 2x the highest frequency recorded.