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75 Cards in this Set

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drug
chemical used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease
pharmacology
the study of drugs and their interactions with the body
4 main sources of drugs
animal, minerals, plants, laboratory(synthetic)
sources of drug info
USP (United States Pharmacopeia)
Physicians Desck Reference
WWW
Bioequivalence
realtice therapuetic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs
Bioassay
test to ascertain a drugs availabiltiy in a biological model
6 rights of medication administration
RIGHT Medication RIGHT route
RIGHT dose RIGHT patient
RIGHT time RIGHT documentation
teratogenic drug
medication that may deform or kill the fetus
free drug availability
proprotion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects
Pharmacokinetics
how a drug is Absorbed, Distributed, metabolized( biotransformed), excreted; out of the body
Pharmacodynamics
how a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects
Active transport
requires the use of energy to move a substance
Carrier-mdeiated diffusion
or
Facilitated diffusion
process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane
Passive transport
movement of a substance without the use of energy
diffusion
movement of solute in a solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis
movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower soulute concentration to an area of ghigher solute concentration
Bioavailability
amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue
Metabolism
the body breaking down chemicals into different chemicals
Biotransformation
special name given to the metabolism of drugs
Prodrug( Parent drug)
medication that iis not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
First-pass effect
the livers partial or complet inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systematic circulation
Oxidation
the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom. This increase the + charge onthe molecule
Hydrolysis
the breakage of a chemical bond be adding water or by incroporation a hydroxyl group into one fragment and a hydrogen ion into the other
enternal route
medication delivery through the GI tract
Parenteral route
medication delivery outside of the GI tract typically using needles
Solution
most common liquid prepartions, generally water base

ex: salt water
Tinctures
prepared using alcohol extraction proces, some alcohol remains in the final drug preparation
EX: iodiine
Suspensions
preparations in which the solid does not dissolve in the solvent, if left alone, the solid portion will separte
ex: activated charcoal
Emulsions
suspensions with an ily substance in the solvent, even when well mixed, globules of il will seperate
ex: oil and water
Spririts
soultion of a volatile drug in alcohol
Elixirs
alcohol and water solvent often with flavorings added to improve the taste
Syrups
sugar water and drug solutions
4 types of drug actions
1. Binds to a receptor site
2. Changes teh physical properties of the cell
3. Chemicall combines with other chemicals
4 alters a normal metabolic pathway
Receptor
speicaled protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
Affinity
force of attraction between a drug and a receptor
Efficacy
a drugs ability to casue the expected response
Agonist
a drug that binds to a receptor site and causes it to initiate the expected response
Antagonist
a drug that binds to a receptor site but does not cause it initiate the expected response
Agonist-antagonist
a drug that binds to a receptor site and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others
Competitive antagonism
one drug binds to a receptor and cuase the expected effect while also blocking another drug from triggering the same receptor
Non-competitive antagonism
the binding of an antagonist causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting and binding
Irreversible antagonism
a competitive antagonsit permanently binds with a receptor site.
Iatrogenic
a disease or response induce by the actions of a care provider
Idiosyncrasy
a drug effect unique to an individual, different in the general population
Tolerance
decreased response to the same amount of a drug after repeated administrations
Cross Tolerance
a tolerane for a drug that develops from a different drug
Tachyphylaxis
rpaidly occuring tolerance for a drug, typically occures with sympathetic drugs ex: decongestant and bronchodilation agents
summation
1+1=2 two drugs that have the same effect are given together
synergism
1+1=3 two drugs that have the same effect but when combined produce a greater repsonse
potentiation
one drug enhances the effect of another EX: Phenergan enhances morphine
Interference
the drugs interact with each other
8 factors which affect drug response relationship
age, body mass, sex, environment, time of admin. pathology, genetics, psychology
biologic half-life
time the body take to clear one half of a drug
onset of action
the time from admin until med. reaches its min. effective concentration
minimum effective concentration
min.level of drug needed to cause a given effect
duration of action
length of time the amount of drug remains above its min effect. concentration
termination of action
time from when drug level drops below min. effec. conc. until its eliminated
therapuetic index
ration of lethal dose for 50% of the pop. to its effective dose for 50% of the pop.
2 major division of the nervouse system
Central Nervous System
Peripheral nervous system
CNS
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervouse system
all nervouse tiss outside CNS
Autonomic Nervouse system
control INvoluntart"automatic" functions
Somatic Nervous System
Control voluntary"motor" functions
Sympathetic nervouse system
ParaSympathetic nervouse system
nicknames
fight or flight
feed or breed
Analgesic
meds that relieve the sensation fo pain ex" opiod and non-opiod
analgesia
the absense of the sensation fo pain
anesthesia
the absence of all sensatino
adjunct medication
agent that enhance the effect of other drugs ex: bezodiazepines, lorazepam
Neuroleptanesthesia
anesthesia that combines decrease sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious
GABA
the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS
(gamma-aminobutyric acid)
3 types of seizures
Partial; specific areas
Grand mal; loss of consc. violent seizing
Absence. generlized but DONT have obvious convulsions; brief LOC
Schedule I drugs
Schedule II drugs
HIgh abuse/ maly lead to severe dependence/ NO accepted med. indications::: same but some accepted med indications
Schedule III drugs
Schedule IV drugs
Less abuse than I & II/ moderate dependence/ accepted med indic.;
Same except less abuse than III
Schedule V drugs
lower abuse than IV drugs/ may lead to limited phys. and pyshc dependence / accepted med indic.
Controlled Subastance ACt of 1970 creat what?
5 schedules of controlled substances