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34 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is NOT true regarding social control of cells?
•Human cells comprise a regulated “cellular society”
•Cell mechanisms control the birth and death rate of cells
•Genes control the birth and death rate of cells
•The goal of the society is the survival of the individual cells
THE ANSWER IS D.
What is the following is the correct name for cancer in humans?
• Tumor
• Neoplasm
• Malignancy
• Carcinogenesis
T/F Normal healthy cells display autonomy.
False - Autonomy: the cell’s independence from normal cellular controls. Cells that disobey the social control mechanisms of normal cells proliferate to form tumors.
What are the two main properties of cancer cells?
Autonomy & Anaplasia (the loss of differentiation; they don’t become a specific type of cell, they just multiply, etc.).
T/F Dividing cells are more prone to mutations.
True
The three main genetic mechanisms have a role in the development of tumors: 1. mutations resulting in hyperactive genes that stimulate growth 2. Loss of activity of genes that inhibit growth 3. Over-expression of genes that prevent apoptosis allowing continued growth of tumors.
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Which of the following describes oncogenes: 1. The genes that play a role in developing tumors 2. Mutated genes 3. genes that may cause a tumor to proliferate indefinitely 4. Genes that hyperactively stimulate growth.
ALL OF THE ABOVE
T/F The enzyme telomerase has been implicated in causing tumors to proliferate.
True - Telomere – the DNA’s protein “cap”, which is present at the end of each chromosome
Normal Cells: The telomere shrinks each time the cell divides. When the telomere loses some of its length, the cell dies.
Immortal cancer cells, the enzyme telomerase adds nucleotides back to the telomere. The cells keep dividing.
What is the process in which cells develop specialized organization, structure, and function of the tissue they constitute?
Differentiation
T/F Both normal cells and stem cells can develop into tumors.
True
Normal cells develop into cancer through what? (not good).
Transformation
During differentiation, certain genes (proto-oncogenes) are normally turned off. Re-activation of these genes can transform a well-differentiated cell to be less differentiated. Carcinogenic agents can mutate or reactivate these proto-oncogenes to cause cells to become less differentiated. What is this called?
Transformation
What are mutated genes that stimulate growth?
Oncogenes
What are genes that are normally turned off and then get turned back on by some carcinogenic agent through the process of transformation?
Proto-oncogenes
T/F Grade III tumors very closely resemble the tissue from which they originate.
False - only Grade I closely resembles. The more they grow and divide, the more they lose their characteristics.
What type of tissue are each of the following tumors derived from? Carcinoma -
epithelial
What type of tissue are each of the following tumors derived from? Sarcoma
connective
What type of tissue are each of the following tumors derived from? lymphoma
lymphatic tissue
What type of tissue are each of the following tumors derived from? Glioma
Glial cells from the nervous system
What type of tissue are each of the following tumors derived from? Leukemias
bone marrow (blood forming tissue)
Cancer cells are characterized by what?
Local increase in cell number, Variation of cell shape and size, Loss of normal arrangement of cells.
T/F Cancer cells have increased communication between cells.
False
T/F There are changes in cell junctions in cancer cells.
True
What happens to gap junctions in between cancer cells?
carcinogens block gap junctions causing lack of communication
What happens to plasmin during tumor cell invasion?
activated in cancer cells, causing the degradation of the extracellular matrix during tumor cell invasion.
What happens to anchoring junctions during tumor cell invasion?
Normal cells do not divide unless they are anchored. Cancer cells display anchorage-independence. Without being anchored, they can continue to divide and metastasize and grow in new environments.
T/F Cancer cells have lower metabolic demands, which is how they proliferate faster than normal cells.
False – this is because they proliferate so rapidly. Cancer cells engage in anaerobic glycolysis even if oxygen is present. People rapidly lose weight when they have cancer because the cancer cells eat all of the energy.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding cellular changes in cancer cells?
• In cancer cells, fibronectin is defective or broken down.
• Cancer cells grow and pile up on top of each other forming a multilayer.
• The nuclei of cancer cells are usually small and round.
• Cancer cells either need growth inducers to divide or produce their own growth factors.
The answer is C.
Rate the following skin cancers from least to most severe:
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Basal cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Basal cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma
*** Cancer cells are more severe when they are deeper layers.
What happens to plasmin during tumor cell invasion?
activated in cancer cells, causing the degradation of the extracellular matrix during tumor cell invasion.
What happens to anchoring junctions during tumor cell invasion?
Normal cells do not divide unless they are anchored. Cancer cells display anchorage-independence. Without being anchored, they can continue to divide and metastasize and grow in new environments.
T/F Cancer cells have lower metabolic demands, which is how they proliferate faster than normal cells.
False – this is because they proliferate so rapidly. Cancer cells engage in anaerobic glycolysis even if oxygen is present. People rapidly lose weight when they have cancer because the cancer cells eat all of the energy.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding cellular changes in cancer cells?
• In cancer cells, fibronectin is defective or broken down.
• Cancer cells grow and pile up on top of each other forming a multilayer.
• The nuclei of cancer cells are usually small and round.
• Cancer cells either need growth inducers to divide or produce their own growth factors.
The answer is C.
Rate the following skin cancers from least to most severe:
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Basal cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Basal cell carcinoma
3. Melanoma
*** Cancer cells are more severe when they are deeper layers.