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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
brain
portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movements and personality
perietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temp, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
thalamus (diencephalon)
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within brain responsible from relaying sensory info to the cortex
gyri
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci
shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissures
deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem
region of brain that serves as a relay btwn cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temp; 3 levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid
plasmalike lcear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
solumn of nervous tissue from the brainstem thru the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves that branch from the central nervous system, inclu nervs of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impluses from body parts and carry sensory info to the brain; aka afferent nerves
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hypothalamus
control center from the autonomic nervous sytem located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympthetic nervous system
division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
paraysympathetic nervous system
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
aphasia
inability to speak
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
coma
a deep sleep; a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale