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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Operant level
the frequency of responding before reinforcement
Terminal behavior
-behavior not in the repertoire or not occurring at the desired frequency
-the goal of the intervention (e.g. Andrew's clear, fluent speech)
Initial behavior
behavior that resembles the terminal behavior along some meaningful dimension and occurs at least with a minimal frequency
(e.g. Andrew moves his lips)
Intermediate behaviors
behavior that more closely approximates the terminal behavior
(e.g. Andrew makes a croaking sound)
The Procedure of Shaping with Reinforcement
-The differential reinforcement of only that behavior which more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior
-Reinforcing successful approximations
-Use shaping when you want to bring about NEW responses
# of response classes in Differential reinforcement and shaping
DR: one
Shaping: a series
Successive approximations to the terminal behavior (Diff reinforcement vs. shaping)
DR: No
Shaping: yes
Some terminal behavior at the start (diff rein vs shaping)
DR: Yes
Shaping: no
The Procedure of SHaping with Punishment
The differential punishment of all behavior except that which more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior
The Procedure of Variable-Outcome Shaping
-Shaping that involves
-an increase in the magnitude of a reinforcer or
-a decrease in the magnitude of an
-aversive outcome as performance more and more
-closely resembles the terminal behavior
The Procedure of Fixed-Outcome Shaping
-Shaping that involves
-the delivery of a fixed magnitude of reinforcer,
-when performance meets the changing criterion,
-or the delivery of a fixed magnitude of an aversive outcome,
-when performance fails to meet the changing criterion
Is working out to get in shape, shaping?
Behavioral chains:
a sequence of responses linked together with connecting stimuli

-term you should use when working with a sequence of distinctly different procedures
Procedures where we use a series of differential reinforcement procedures for the same response class

-only deals with one response class
-gradually changes criterion
Several distinctly different responses (shaping vs. chaining)
Shaping: no
Chaining: yes
Behavior changes along a single response dimension? (Shaping vs behavior chaining)
Shaping: Yes
Chaining: No