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45 Cards in this Set

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What are differences between metals and nonmetals?
1)don't have much luster
2) poor conductors of heat and electricity
3) dull
4) brittle
5) neither malleable nor ductile
6) are mostly gas.
Nonmetals have many _________________ in their highest electron energy level. These electrons are _________________.
. many valence electrons
. held together by the nucleus
Nonmetals tend to form ___________-charged ions.
negatively
Metalloids
.Have properties of metals and nonmetals
. most are shiney solids (not as shiney as metals)
. will conduct heat and electricity, but not as well as metal
Boron Group
. Boron is the only nonmetal in group 13
. Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust
Carbon Group
. Carbon is the only nonmetal in group 14
. Carbon can form unlimited #s of compounds
. Silicon makes up 60% of rocks and soil
Nitrogen Group
. 80% of the air is Nitrogen
. Nitrogen is essential for life = creates protiens
. Phophorus is very reactive=cut=ignite
Oxygen Group
. Oxygen it the most important element on Earth and the most abundant
. 60% human mass
. 50% Earth's crust
Halogens
. salt formers
. are found in most foods
. NaCl helps nerve impulses
. Fluorine is the most reactive nonmetal
Noble Gases
. inert (unreactice)
. filled outer shell
. all noble gases exist in the atmosphere
Hydrogen
. is set apart because its properties don't fit with any other single group
. acts like metals and nonmetals, but can form positive and negative ions
Proton
. positively charged particle located in the nucleus
Neutron
. neutral particle found in the nucleus
Electron
. negatively charged particle found in different energy levels in the electron cloud outside of the nucleus
Period
. a horizontal row on the periodic table
. go up in atomic # and valence electrons from left to right
. increase in size from right to left
Group/Family
a vertical column on the periodic table
. all have similar properties
. all have same # of valence electrons
Matter
anything that has mass or takes up space
particle model
all forms of matter are made up of particles that are in constant motion
solid
definate shape and volume
liquid
definate volume and no definate shape
gas
no definate shape or volume
plasma
most common phase of matter in the universe found in stars and lightning
physical change
when matter undergoes a change in size, shape or phase
chemical change
particles of one substance that has new and different properties after a change
atom
the most basic units of matter
element
can't be broken down and retain its properties
isotopes
atoms of the same element that contain different #s of neutrons
compounds
a substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined
molecule
a particle of matter made up of 2 or more atoms held together by the sharing of electrons
ion
a charged particle formed when an atom or a group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons
homogeneous mixture
all parts contain the same amount of each component
heterogeneous mixture
all parts don't contain the same amount of each component
periodic
a regular repeating pattern
luster
reflecting light
malleability
the ability to be shaped, flattened and bent without breaking
ductile
the ability to be pulled into wire
ore
minerals containing relatively large amounts of metal compounds
Metals
1) have luster
2) conducts electricity and heat
3) are malleable and ductile
4) are mostly solids
atomic mass
. # of total protons and neutrons
. subtract # of protons (atomic #) from atomic mass to get # of neutrons
conductor vs. insulator
. conductor is dense: conducts heat and allows a flow of electrons: conducts electricity
. insulator cannot conduct heat because it's not dense and cannot conduct electricity because it doesn't allow a flow of electrons
Mendeleev
created the 1st periodic table of elements and organized the elements by atomic mass
Moseley
improved Mendeleev's periodic table by organizing elements by atomic #
What's so special about:
Hg
Fe
Co
Ni
Cs
W
Hg - Mercury - liquid at room temperature
Fe/Co/Ni - Iron/Cobalt/Nickel - magnetic
Cs - Cesium - low melting point
W - Tungsten - high melting point
Why does a metallic bond give most metals the special properties of malleability, luster, ductility, good conductors, etc...
Becuase they share many electrons
alloy
mixed metal with other metals or nonmetals