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63 Cards in this Set

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exocrine glands
secrete substances such as sweat, saliva and mucus onto the epithelial surfaces
endocrine sigaling
hormones distributed throughout the body
paracrine signaling
involves secretion of chemical mediators by certainc cellas that act only on nearby cells
autocrine signaling
cells secrete substances that may act upon THEMSELVES
synaptic signaling
cells secrete specialized chemical called neurotransmitters that transmot dignal across synapses ( the junctions between the neurons
Chemoreceptors
resond to chemical stimuli
Baroreceptors
respond to pressure changes, it is located in the arch of the aorta, it senses change in BP
Negative feedback loop
body reverses or compensates for a pathophysio. process.
postitive feedback loop
process continues ex: childbirth
pathology
the study of disease and its causes
pathophysiology
the physiology of disorderd function
atrophy
a decrease in cell size resulting from a decreased workload
hypertrophy
an increase in cell size resulting from an increase in workload; most commonly affects the cells of the heart, and kidneys
hyperplasia
an increase in the # of cells resulting from an increase in workload; common along with hypertrophy
metaplasis
replacement of 1 type of epithelial cell by another type: lung cancer; ciliated columnar--> squamos cells
Dysplasia
a change in cell size, shape, or appearance caused by an external stressor
7 Causes of Cellular Injury
hypoxia, chemicals, infectious agents, inflam. agents, physical agents, nutri. factors, genetic factors
When a pathogen invades a body 3 things can happen
1.pathogen wins
2.pathogen and body battle to a draw
3. body defeats pathogen
Cellular death leads to one of two process:
Apoptosis, necrosis
Apoptosis
an injured cell releases enzymes to engluf and destroy itself, cells shrink
Necrosis
a pathological process; cells swell & rupture
water accounts for ___ percent of total body weight
60%
intracellular fluid
the fluid inside the body cells
extracellular fluid
the fluid outside the body cells; intravascular
Third space is know as_____?
interstital space, or "around cells"
Cations are?
Anions are?
(+) charged
(-) charged
Osmotic gradient
the difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane
Diffusion
the movement of molecule through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of less conc.
Active tranpsort
the movement of a substance AGAINST the osmotic gradient
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of a substance wich requires assistance; ex- glucose
Oncotic Force
large particles or "colloids" present in blood plasma exert pressure pulling water from the interstital to the intervacular
edema
accumulation of water in the interstital space
Bllod component percentages
White cells and platelets 1%
Red cells 45%
PLasma 54%
Crystalloids
substances that CAN diffuse through a membrane, unlike a colloid; found in IV fluids
Isotonic Solution
concentration similar to blood, will NOT cause a significant shift in fluids ex: NACL, Lactated ringers
Hypertonic Solution
higher conc. than cells will shift fluid out of interstitial and intracellur compartment to intravascular ex: D10, D50
Hypotonic Solution
lower conc. than cells will shift fluid out of intravascular into interstitial and intracellur compartment compartment. ex D5W
explain PH scale
0------14
0= acidic
14= alkalosis
human range 7.35 to 7.45
Respiratory Acidosis
acidity caused by abnormal retentino of CO resulting from imparied ventilations
Respiratory Alkalosis
alkalinity caused by excessive elimination of CO resulting from increased ventilations
Metabolic acidosis
acidity caused by an increased production of acids during metabolism or causes like DM, diarrhea
Metabolic Alkalosis
alkalinity caused by an increase in plasma bi carb. resulting from cause like diruesis, or too much Na Bicarb
every one of a persons somatic cell contain_______ chromosomes
46, 23 from father and 23 from mother
Stroke volume
the amount of blood ejected by the heart in 1 contraction
cardiac output
Blood pressure
stroke volume x Hr= CO
CO x peripheral vasc, resist= BP
The movement and utilization of O2 by the body is dependent upon:
1) adequate conc. if inspired O2
2) appropriate movement of O2 across alvelor membrane into the arterial bloodstream
The movement and utilization of O2 by the body is dependent upon:
continued
3) adequate number of RBS to carry O2
4) Proper tissue perfusion
5) efficient off-loading of oxygen at the tissue level
Glycogenesis
glycogen to glucose process
Gluconegenesis
breakdown of proteins and fats to glucose
Compensated Shock
early stage of shock during which the body compensates to maintain normal perfusion
DEcompensated Shock
advanced stages of shock, body cannot maintain perfusion
irreversible shock
shock that has progressed so far, no medical intervention can reverse it, death is inevitable
cardioagenic shock
shock caused by insufficient CO, the inability to perfuse all parts of the body
Neurogenic shock
shock resulting from brain or spinal cord injury, interupts nerve impulses tothe arteries
Septic shock
develops because of an infection in the bloodstream which can lead to MOD
MOD's
Multiple Organ Dysfunction syndrome; progressive impairment of 2 or more organ systems
Inflammatory Response
begins within seconds of injury, ITs NONSPECIFIC, attacks any invader
Immune Response
develops more slowly that is SPECIFIC
Antigen
a marker on a cell that identifies it as foreign or not
Antibody
a substance produced by B lymphocyets, which will control or destroy a foreign antigen
IGm
IGg
IGa
IGd
IGe
1st exposure, primary response
2nd exposure lrg. qnty of IGg
immunity
mucouse membranes
anaphalzis
B lymphocytes
a type of white blood cell that produce antibodies to indirectly attack antigens
T lymphocytes
DONT produce antibodies, they attack directly; made in the tyhmus gland