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24 Cards in this Set

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air wars
applied to candidates' use of televised ads especially by playing off each other's ads, seeking to gain the strategic advantage.
candidate-centered politics
election campaigns and other political processes in which candidates, not political parties, have most of the initiative and influence.
dealignment
a situation in which voters' partisan loyalties have been substantially and permanently weakened.
grassroots party
a political party built from the bottom up consisting of committees and clubs at the local, state, and national levels, with membership open to all eligible voters.
hard money
funding given by a political party and individual contributors to a candidate for office that is regulated by the campaign finance laws and must go directly to the candidate and can be spent as the candidate chooses.
hired guns
modern day campaign organization consisting of consultants, pollsters, media producers, and fund-raising specialists who charge for their services.
money chase
term used to explain the activity of candidates who are forced to spend much of their time raising funds because of the high cost of campaigns.
multiparty system
a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition.
nomination
the designation of a particular individual to run as a political party's candidate (its "nominee") in the general election.
packaging (of a candidate)
the process in a campaign of placing aspects of the candidate's partisanship, policy positions, record, and personality in the context of the voters' "ideal" candidates.
party-centered politics
election campaigns and other political processes in which political parties, not individual candidates, hold most of the initiative and influence.
party coalition
the groups and interests that support a political party.
party competition
a process whereby conflict over society's goals is transformed by political parties into electoral competition in which the winner gains the power to govern.
party organizations
party organizational units at national, state and local levels; their influence has decreased over time as a result of many factors.
party realignment
an election or set of elections in which the electorate responds strongly to an extraordinarily powerful issue that has disrupted the established political order. A realignment has a lasting impact on public policy, popular support for the parties and the composition of the party coalitions.
political party
an ongoing coalition of interests joined together to get their candidates for public office elected under a common label.
primary election (direct primary)
a form of election in which voters choose a party's nominees for public office. In most primaries, eligibility to vote is limited to voters who are registered members of the party.
proportional representation
a form of representation in which legislative seats are allocated proportionally according to each political party's share of the popular vote. This system enables smaller parties to compete successfully for seats.
service relationship
a situation where party organizations assist candidates for office but have no power to require them to accept or campaign on the party's main policy positions.
single-member districts
a form of representation in which only a single candidate is elected to a particular office by the voters of that district. This system favors major parties because only candidates who can gain a large proportion of votes in an election district have a realistic chance of winning.
soft money
process made possible by a loophole in campaign finance regulation which enables a contributor to give an unlimited amount of money to a political party. This money must be spent only on party activities (rather than the candidate individually) building party membership, getting out the vote through ads and registration drives, and advertising campaigns that raise public awareness about political issues.
split-ticket voting
the pattern of voting in which the individual voter in a given election casts a ballot for one or more candidates of each major party. This pattern is the opposite of straight-ticket voting.
straight-ticket voting
this occurs when a voter in an election casts a ballot that includes only candidates of the same party.
two-party system
a system in which only two political parties have a real chance of acquiring control of the government.