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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where do plants get the energy they need to produce food?
Light energy from the sun
Organisms such as plants, which make their own food
Organisms, such as animals, obtain energy from the foods they consume or decomposing other organisms like mushrooms
One of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy
What does ATP consist of?
ADENINE, a 5-carbon sugar called ROBOSE, and three phosphate groups which are the key to ATP's ability to store and release food
A similar compound to ATP except it has only two phosphate groups instead of 3 like ATP...when it stores energy & a 3rd group is added it becomes ATP
How is energy in ATP
By breaking the bond between the second and third phosphate groups
What are some of the ways cells use energy released?
Active transport, synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, and responses to chemical signals at the cell surface
True or False
ATP is a great molecule for transferring energy not storing large amounts for a long time
True or False
Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods like glucose
Process in which plants use the energy of sunlight to make high-energy carbohydrates
Examples of high-energy carbohydrates
Sugars and starches
What is the waste product of Photosynthesis?
What did Jan van Helmont's research find or conclude?
That trees gain most of their mass from water
What did Joseph Priestly's research conclude?
That plants release a substance that can keep a candle burning ... we now know that that substance is oxygen
What did Ingenhousz conclude with his research?
That plants need sunlight to produce oxygen
What did the research of Helmont, Priestly and Ingenhousz lead to?
Work of other scientists who discovered that in the presence of light, plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and plants also release oxygen
What is this?
6CO2 + 6H20 -light- C6H12O6 + 6O2
Equation for photosynthesis which means
Carbon dioxide + water with light produces sugars + oxygen
What do plants use the sugars to produce?
Complex Carbohydrates such as starches
Where do plants obtain the carbon dioxide they need for photosynthesis?
From the air or from the water in which they grow.
In addition to water and carbon dioxide, what else is required for photosynthesis
Light and chlorophyll
Plants gather the sun's energy with light absorbing molecules called _________.
What is chlorophyll?
The plants' principal pigment
What are the two main types of Chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll a & Chlorophyll b
Why do plants look green?
Chlorophyll absorbs light in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum very well but not the reflects this and makes plants look green
And are arranged in stacks called Grana
Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into photosystems...
Clusters in the thylakoid membrane of chlorophyll and other pigments which collect light
The region of the chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes
Electron carrier
It accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion... It is then NADPH
light-dependent reactions
require energy from light to produce ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH
ATP synthase
a protein that spans the thylakoid membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through it
Calvin cycle
Named after Melvin Calvin who worked out the cycle of ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars and is a light INDEPENDENT CYCLE which does NOT require light
What are the main products of the Calvin cycle?
sugars, lipids, amino acids and other compounds
In plants .. where does photosynthesis take place?
Inside the chloroplasts
Where do light-dependent reactions take place?
Within the thylakoid membranes...
What are the reactants in photosynthesis equation?
Water, ADP and NADP
What are the products of the photosynthesis equation
oxygen gas, ATP and NADPH
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
In the stroma of chloroplasts and does not require light (Light independent)
What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Availability of water, temperature and intensity of light