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7 Cards in this Set

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Shepard's & Standings Studies
Shepard -
612 pictures after 1week = 87% recognition
612 words Immediate Recognition = 88%
Accuracy for visual material is very high
Standing - Recognition of pictures - 6600 out of 10000
1)1,000 words = 615 correct 2)1,000 ordinary pictures = 770 correct 3) 1,000 unusual pictures = 880 coorect
Dual Coding Theory
Memory is improved when items can be represented by both verbal & visual memory codes
-Imagery Potential - how easy it is to form an image
High Imagery words are easier to learn than low imagery word
-Visual & Verbal info are represented & processed in independent cognitive systems
-You can forget one code without forgetting the other
1)Visual System - concrete objects and events
2)Verbal System - language info
-Twice as many access routes to info when Visual and Verbal systems are used
Concrete-Abstract Dimension
Extent to which a concept can be represented by a picture
-easy to form an image to represent a concrete object
-difficult to form an image to represent an abstract concept
Association Value
The number of verbal associations generated for a concept
-not as good of predictor of learning as imagery potential
Propositional Theory
All knowledge, including spatial knowledge, can be expressed in semantic-based propositions
-Stimulus is represented as a symbolic description that does not resemble what it represents
Kosslyn, Ball & Reiser
Visual Scanning
-The time it takes to scan between 2 objects in an image should be a function of their distance from each other
-Subjects asked to memorize a map with landmarks
-told to mentally scan between objects and press key
-The further apart the objects, the longer it took to mentally scan between them
--> We mentally scan visual images in the same way we scan pictures
Shepard & Metzler Study
Mental Transformation
3 pairs of patterns
(a)Identical except rotated
(b)Identical except rotated perpendicular to surface page
(c)Not identical - impossible to rotate
-P asked to say if they were identical or different
-If mental images have characteristics of real world objects then if 2 images were misaligned subjects would have to "mentally rotate" to determine if identical or not
-The greater the angle of rotation, the longer to determine if identical or not
DV - Time to respond identical or different
Rotation Degrees