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135 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
nose
structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; also houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate
the roof of the mouth; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passage
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx btwn the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
adenoid
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grapelike shape
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
a lidlike structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into right and left bronchus
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
right and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs
two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung; two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity
potential space between visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and moves up and down to aid respiration
mediastinum
partition that separates the throax into two compartments (containing the right and left lungs) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes
thin sheets of tissues that line respiratory passages and secrete mucus, an viscid (sticky) fluid
cilia
hairlike processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move mucus cell secretions upward
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breath only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing char. by a grad. inc. of depth and sometimes rate to a max level followed by a dec. resulting in apnea
crackles
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airwayss and alveoli; occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
wheezes
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows thru a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
stridor
a high-pitched crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airwary (trachea or larynx)
cyanosis
a bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amt of oxygen in the blood
dysphonia
hoarseness
epistaxis
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
hypercapnia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessive movt of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movt of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amt of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amnt of oxygen in the tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking the flow of air moving out of lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
caseous necrosis
degeneration of death of tissue with a cheeselike appearance
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli and eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an xray representing the consolidation of matter within the air spaces of the lungs, usu. resulting from an inflam. process
rhinorrhea
thin, watter discharge from the nose (runny nose)
asthma
panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane char by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
bronchitis
inflam of bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
bronchiectasis
abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease char. by overexpansion of the alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that i sa combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
laryngitis
inflam. of larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis
inflam. of upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
croup
inflam. of upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
laryngospasm
spasm of laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
nasal polyposis
presense of numerous polyps in the nose
pharyngitis
inflam. of pharynx
coryza
head cold; inflam of the nasal mucous membrane
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
blood in pleural cavity
pleuritis
inflam of pleura
pleurisy
inflam of pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
pneumonia
an inflam in lung cuased by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumonia caused by the pneumocystis carinii organism, a common opportunistic infection seen in those with positive HIV
pneumothorax
air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothroax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis
inflam of lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dusts
pulmonary embolism
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs, char. by the formation of tubercles, inflam. and necrotizing caseous lesions
sinusitis
inflam of sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation (10+ seconds) that occure during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsillitis
acute or chronic inflam. of tonsils
upper respiratory infection (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
arterial blood gases
analysis of arterial blood to dertermine adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH
a measure of blood acidity of alkalinity
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amought of carbon dioxid in the blood
endoscopy
exam inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic or treatment purposes
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchosope, to examine the airways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, grothws, and cancers
auscultation
to listen; a physcal exam method of listening to the sounds withing the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
percussion
a physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimte the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
lung biopsy
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic exam
lung scan
a two-part nuclear scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation or perfusion made after radioactive material is 1) injected into pt's blood, and 2) as patient breaths radioactive material into airways. comparison o the two scans indicates wheter an abnormality exists in the airways or the pulmonary circulation; commonly called a V/Q (quantity of blood) scan refering to ventilation/perfusion
magnetic resonance image (MRI)
nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep (eye and muscle movts respiration, brain wave patterns) for diagnosis of sleep disorders
pulmonary function testing
direct and indierect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
spirometry
a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
tidal volume
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC)
amnt of air exhaled after a max. inspiration
peak flow (PF) peak expiratory flow rate
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a max. inspiration
radiology
xray imaging
chest xray (CXR)
xray image of the chest to visualize the lungs; directional terms identify the path of the xray beam to produce the radiograph: PA (posterior-anterior), AP (anterior-posterior), lateral: toward the side
computed tomography (CT)
CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung; CT of the head is used tovisualize the structures of the nose and sinuses
pulmonary angiography
xray of the blood vessels of lungs after injection of contrast material
adenoidectomy
excision of adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy
endoscopic eam of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tube
thoracotomy
incision into chest
tonsillectomy
excision of palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
excision of tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
a method of artificail respiration and chest compressions to move oxygenated blood to vital body organs when breathing and heart have stopped
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
a device that pumps a constand pressurized blow of air thru the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
incentive spirometry
a common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the pt to inhale and hold an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
mechanical ventilation
mechamical breathing using a ventilator
antibiotic
a drug that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant
a drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
antihistamine
a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine
a compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
bronchodilator
a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing