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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
liquid portion of the blood and lymph containing water, proteins, and cellular components (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)
liquid portion of teh blood left after clotting
red blood cell, which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
protein-iron compound contained in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
white blood cell which protects the body from invading harmful substances
a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
a granular leukocyte, named from the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
another term for neutrophil named from the many segments present in its nucleus
an immature neutrophil
a granular leukocyte named for the rose colored stain of its granules that increases in allergic and some infectious reactions
a granular leukocyte named for the dark stain of its granules that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
an agranulocytic leukocyte active in the process of immunity; the three categories of lymphocytes are T cells (thymus dependent), B cells (bone marrow-deprived) and NK (natural killer) cells
an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting
primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
organ between the stomach and diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis and provides an environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune responses
fluid circulated thru the lymph vessels
lymph capillaries
microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
lymph vessels
vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capilaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream
white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
lymph nodes
several small oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary and inguinal regions
lymph ducts
collecting shannels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
right lymphatic duct
receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
thoracic duct
receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm and lower extremities
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
a substance that when introduced into the body, causes formation of antibodies against it
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
active immunity
an immunity that protects the body against a future infection, as the result of antibodies that develop naturally in response to an infection or artificailly after administration of a vaccine
passive immunity
an immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally thru the placenta to a fetus or artificially by injection of a serum containing antibodies
presence of red blood cells of unequal size
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or therapy with immunosuppressive agents
impaired ability to provide an immune response
enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
presence of large red blood cells
presence of small red blood cells
decrease in the number of neutrophils
presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells
increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
enlargemnt of the spleen
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologicdiseases to develop; transmitted sexually or thru contaminated blood
a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or pack red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
iron deficiency anemia
a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron, affecting production of hemoglobin and small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia
a macrocytic normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12 causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape and reduced in number
aplastic anemia
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
erythroblastosis fetalis
a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
Rh factor
the presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a rxn between Rh-positive and Rh-negative blood
Rh positive
presence of antigens
Rh negative
absence of antigens
hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
group of hereditary bleeding disorders with a defect in clotting factors necessary for coagulation of blood
chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
disorder within bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells); usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin's disease
process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ; ____ is the plural form of the term, indicating the spread to two or more distant sites
viral condition characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
blood chemistry
test of the fluid portion of blood to measure amounts of chemical constituents (glucose and cholesterol)
blood chemistry panels
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions, ie metabolic panel, lipid panel, arthritis panel
basic metabolic panel
battery of tests used as a general screen for disease: calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
comprehensive metabolic panel
tests in addition to basic panel for expanded screening purpose: albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, ALT, and AST
blood culture
test to diagnose an infection in the bloodstream, by culturing a specimen of blood to encourage the growth of microorganisms, which are then identified
ertyhrocyte sedimentation rate
timed test that measures the reate at which red blood cells settle thru a volume of plasma
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
substance present in tissues, platelents, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
prothrombin time
test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
complete blood count (CBC)
a common lab blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnosis incl the following four component tests
white blood count (WBC)
a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter, obtained by manual or automated lab methods
red blood count (RBC)
a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic mellimeter, obtained manually or via automated lab methods
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
blood indices
calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the avg size, hemoglobin, concertration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
mean corpuscular (cell) volume (MCV)
calc of the volume of indiv cells in cubic microns using HCT and RBC results: MCV = HCT/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH)
calc of content in weight of hemoglobin in the avg red blood cell using HGB and RBC results; MCH = HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
calc of the avg hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC = HGB/HCT
differential count
determination of the number of each typeof white blood cell (leukocyte) in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology
as part of identifying and counting the WBCs, the condition, the size, and the shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted
platelet count (PLT)
calc of the number of thrombocytes in blood: normal is 150,000 to 450,000 per cubic millimeter
bone marrow aspiration
needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic exam
xray of a lymphnode or vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium
bone marrow transplant
transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a dieseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
removal of a lymph node
incision into a lymph node
lymph node dissection
removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic exam
removal of the spleen
removal of the thymus gland
blood transfusion
introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood
blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
homologous blood
blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
blood component therapy
transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
a method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases wtih chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements (such as platelets) followed by reinfusion
a drug that prevents blood clotting
a drug that stopes the flow of blood within the vessels
a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels thereby increasing blood flow