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27 Cards in this Set

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aria
an elaborate lyrical song for solo voice usually within the opera genre.
Arias are generally reflective of emotional happenings in a movement

ex: Dido and Aeneus - Purcell
Arioso
a style of singing and a type of song midway between an aria and a recitative
basso continuo
a small ensemble of at least two intruments who provide a foundation for the melody or melodies above. Heard almost exclusively in Baroque music.
basso ostinato (ground bass)
a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again
concertino
the group of instruments that function as soloists in a concerto grosso
concerto grosso
a three movement concerto of the Baroque era that pits the sound of a small group of soloists (concertino) against that of the full orchestra (tutti)
harpsicord
a keyboard instrument, popular during the Baroque era, that provides sound by depressing a key that drives a lever upward and forces a pick to pluck a string. (pre-piano)
libretto
the text of an opera
melodic sequence
the repetition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower scale degrees.
ex: Vivaldi's "Spring" first movement
movement
a large independent section of a major instrumental work, such as a sonata, dance suite, symphony, quartet, or concerto. Movements are designated in instrumental genres- concerto, sonata (both da camera and da chiesa)
opera
a dramatic work in which the actors sing some of all of their parts.
ex: Purcell - Dido and aeneus
monteverdi
composer of the first opera - Orfeo
opus
the term adopted by composers to enumerate and identify their compositions
recitative
musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot. (It moves the story along, connects the arias.)
ritornello
the italian word for "return" or "refrain" - a short musical passage in a Baroque concerto grosso invariably played by the tutti.
ex: Vivaldi - "Spring"
The Seasons
a collection of 4 solo concerti writen by Vivaldi. Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter. Each concerto has 3 movements.
secco recitative
"dry" recitative accompanied only by the harpsicord
solo concerto
a concerto in which an orchestra and a single preformer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition
solo sonata
a work, usually in three or four movements for keyboard. When another solo melodic instrument played a sonata in the Baroque era it was supported by the basso continuo.
Sonata da camera
chamber sonata: a suite for keyboard or small instrumental ensemble made up of individual dance movements.
sonata de chiesa
church sonata: a suite for keyboard or small instrumental ensemble made up of movement indicated only by tempo marks such as grave, vivace, adagio. Originally intended to be performed in church.
terraced dynamics
a term used to describe the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era.
ex: Vivaldi "Spring" - dynamic changes heard when music moves from solo to tutti - quiet, loud.
toccata
a one movement composition free in form (not much repetition) originally for solo keyboard but later for instrumental ensemble as well.
trio sonata
an ensemble of the Baroque period consisting actually of four performers, two playing upper parts and two n the basso continuo instruments.
tutti
(Italian for "all") the full orchestra or full performing force
viola de gamba (bass viol)
(precursor to the cello/double bass) the lowest member of the viol family, primarily used in the music of late Renaissance and Baroque eras.
walking bass
a bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale.