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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the second line of defense?
What is the first step of healing?
what necessary for all tissue healing?
What is a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in
vascularized tissue?
What triggers the acute inflammatory response?
Cellular Injury
When does the inflammatory response begin?
After injury what else triggers the inflammatory response?
Dead cells
T/F Inflammation is specific?
T/F Inflammation occurs in the same way no matter what the stimulus is?
T/F Inflammation occurs in the same way whether it is the first or second time of
exposure to the same stimulus?
Degranulation of what cells initiates inflammation?
The granules of mast cells contain chemicals that cause inflammation such as?
What are Cellular bags of granules (histamine) that are
located in loose connective tissues close to blood vessels?
Mast cells
What is the most important activator of the inflammatory response?
Mast cells
Degranulation releases pre-synthesized biochemicals including...
histamine and chemotactic factors
What causes vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability which leads to increases in exudate?
What causes the release of mediators such as heat shock proteins that cause mast cells to degranulate?
Injured or dead cells
What Attract specific type of leukocyte to the site of inflammation?
Chemotactic factors
What is Chemotaxis?
the directional movement of cells, which detect where the chemotactic factors are most highly concentrated and follow them
The second stage of initiating inflammation by mast cells following Degranulation is what?
Is synthesis a long term or immediate response?
long term
T/F stimulates mast cells to synthesize biochemicals that are important in the later stages of inflammation because they stimulate slower and more prolonged responses than histamine?
What mast cell products are acidic lipids that are involved in anaphalaxsis?
What mast cell product are Long-chain unsaturated fatty acids?
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents block their synthesis, thereby inhibiting inflammation and pain, a type of what?
How are leukotrienes and prostoglandins different from histamine?
they stimulate slower and more prolonged responses than histamine
What are the 4 functions of exudate?
-Dilute the toxic products produced by dying cells
– Carry plasma proteins and leukocytes (phagocytes, macrophages) to the injury site
– Carry away dead cells and debris (pus) through the lymphatic system
– When going through the lymphatic system, antigens pass through the lymph nodes and stimulate B cells and T cells, thus helping the immune response
What are the 3 types of exudate?
– Serous exudate: early on or in mild inflammation the exudate is watery with few plasma proteins and leukocytes
– Fibrinous exudate: in more severe and advanced inflammation the exudate is thick and clotted with a large number of proteins and leukocytes
– Purulent (suppurative) exudate: with persistent bacterial infections the exudate consists of pus; It is characteristic of walled-off lesions (cysts or
Exudate and biochemical factors work together to perform what functions?
1) Destroy the injurious agents and remove them from the injury site
2) Wall off and confine these agents to limit their effects on the host
3) Stimulate and enhance the immune response
4) Promote healing
Which type of exudate contains pus?
Purulent (suppurative) exudate
Mediators such as histamine affect microcirculation in what 3 ways?
the arterioles dilate causing increased blood flow to the inflamed site (edema and swelling)
2.Increased vascular permeability:
– Capillaries become more permeable causing increased exudation (exudate to leak to the tissue resulting in edema, and swelling)
– The endothelial cells that line the capillaries retract, creating larger spaces at the cellular junctions of the vessel walls
• Inflammatory agents such as histamine and prostaglandins cause the endothelial cells to retract
3. Leukocytes move into the tissue
WBC migrate and adhere to the inner walls of blood vessels and then emigrate through the vessel walls to the site of injury
The main WBC's of inflammation are phagocytes such as what?
– Neutrophils: the first to arrive at the inflamed site
– Macrophages: arrive at the site 3-6 days after injury
What are the 5 superficial signs of inflammation?
-Redness (rubor)
– Heat (calor)
– Swelling (tumor)
– Pain (dolor)
– Pressure exerted by exudate accumulation (swelling)
– Loss of function
Which line of cells is involved in inflammation?
What are the 3 roles of the inflammation?
– Kill the microorganisms
– Remove the debris of “battle” including exudate and dead cells
– Prepares the lesion for tissue regeneration and repair
What are the two main classes of leukocytes which participate in inflammation:
What are the 4 types of granulocytes?
• Mast cells
• Neutrophils
• Eosinophils
• Basophils
What is the most common type of leukocytes during early phases of acute inflammation entering the inflammatory site 6-12 hours after initial injury/infection?
Neutrophils are sensitive to what type of environment,giving them a short life-span?
What type of granulocyte degrades histamine and protects against parasites?
What type of granulocyte signals meditors with cytokines?
What are the 2 types of cells of inflammation?
granulocytes and macrophages/monocytes
T/F macrophages are the immature form of monocytes?
False, Opposite
T/F Granulocytes are long-term whereas maccrophages die quickly?
False, opposite.
T/F Macrophages take much longer to be activated than Granulocites?
How do lymphokines secreted by T-cells affect macrophages?
They increase their phagocytic activity
What cells also consume our dead cells?
T/F macrophages Secrete substances that promote the re-growth of tissue during wound healing?
What are the 4 steps of phagocytosis?
1. Recognizing the target and adhering to it
2.Enguling the target (ingestion and cytosis)
3.Fusing with lysosomes within the phagocyte
4.Destroy the target with lysosomal activity
what happens to a phagocyte after phagocytosis?
It dies
Without the process of ospsonization the process of phagocytes eating bacteria would be slow, what is this process?
process of an antibody and complement components "coating" the bacteria
What are the Similarities between Neutrophils and macrophages?
•They are both phagocytes
• Neutrophils and macrophages circulate in the blood
• Inflammation stimulates them to migrate through the vessel walls near a lesion
• They are attracted to the lesion by chemotactic factors
• They are kept at the site of inflammation by the meshwork formed by fibrinous exudate
• At the site of injury they ingest (phagocytose) foreign cells and dead cells
• They die and become a part of the pus (purulent exudate) which leaves the body through the lymph or epithelium (sinuses)
What are Differences between Neutrophils and macrophages**?
The speed with which they arrive at the site:
• Neutrophils arrive first, 6-12 hours after injury
• Macrophages arrive after 24 hours
– The length of time they remain active
• Macrophages live longer, neutrophils are sensitive to acidic environment
– The chemotactic factors capable of attracting them
– The enzymes in their lysosomes are different
– Their participation in immune response (Immunity includes the lymphocytes, inflammation does not!)
• Macrophages are involved in antigen processing and respond to lymphokines, neutrophils are not
What are Platelets?
– Cytoplasmic fragments that circulate in the bloodstream until vascular injury occurs
-- regularly shaped, colorless bodies
– Many mediators of inflammation activate the platelets
-- reactivated when they encounter the air, chemical mediators, or a physical barrier
-- Calcium and vit K must be present for the clot to form, the clot blocks blood flow
– When activated, the platelets:
• Interact with components of the clotting cascade (plasma protein system) to stop bleeding
• Degranulate, releasing mediators such as serotonin, which has vascular effects similar to histamine
They break apart
They interact with the fibrinogen (protein) to form fibrin (the mesh)
What are the five cytokines?
1. Interleukin-1 (IL-1)

2. Migration-inhibitory factor (MIF)
inflamed site
3. Macrophage-activating factors (MAFs)
monocytes into macrophages
4. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
5. Inerferons (INFα & INFβ)
What are the characteristics of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) do?
– Produced mostly by activated macrophages
– Causes the hypothalamus to induce fever
– Increases production of acute-phase reactants (plasma proteins that are needed during the acute phase of the inflammatory response) by the liver
What are the characteristics of Migration-inhibitory factor (MIF)?
-Produced by lymphocytes
– Keeps macrophages at the inflamed site
What are the characteristics of Macrophage-activating factors (MAFs)?
– Increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages
– Promotes maturation of monocytes into macrophages
What are the characteristics of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?
– Produced mostly by macrophages
– Facilitates inflammation and phagocytic activity of neutrophils
– Induces fever by acting on the hypothalamus and controlling the production of IL-1
– Directly lethal to cells; May be responsible for fatalities from shock caused by gram-negative bacterial infection
What are the characteristics of Inerferons (INFα & INFβ)?
– Proteins produced by host cells that were invaded by a virus
– Inerferons bind to neighboring cells and stimulate them to produce antiviral proteins
– Thus, they prevent viruses from infecting healthy cells, but they do not effect host cells that are already infected by a virus
What is a Gram Stain?
• Gram stain is a method for staining bacteria
• Gram-positive organisms stain purple-black
• Gram-negative organisms stain pink
• They stain differently due to differences in cell wall structure
How does the plasma protein system work?
In a cascade with each proenzymes activating the next
What are the three plasma protein systems that mediate inflammation?
1. The complement system
2. The clotting (coagulation) system
3. The kinin system
What are the characteristics of
The complement system?
• Induces inflammation (all inflammatory responses)
– Has at least 10 proteins
– Activated by:
• Antigen-antibody complexes
• Bacterial toxins
• Components of other plasma protein systems
– One of the body’s most potent defenders against bacterial infection because an antigen-antibody complex (specific immunity) mediates inflammation, which is nonspecific (double punch)
What are the characteristics of
The clotting (coagulation) system?
• Forms a clot and meshwork at the site of the inflammation to limit the spread of inflammation
1. Prevent the spread of infection and inflammation to adjacent tissues
2. Keep microorganisms at the site of greatest phagocytic activity
3. Form a clot that stops bleeding and provides a framework for future repair and healing (scab)
– Fibrin, an insoluble protein, is the main substance of the mesh, and the end product of this cascade
What are the characteristics of
The kinin system?
• Induces vascular responses in the later phase of inflammation
– The primary kinin is bradykinin
– Important during the later phase of inflammation
– The functions of bradykinin are to:
• Induce vasodilatations more slowly than histamine
• Increase vascular permeability
• Increases leukocyte chemotaxis
• Induce pain
Pain killers act against prostaglandins and bradykinin