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28 Cards in this Set

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electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space (visible light)
wavelength
the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point per second (hertz or s^-1)
amplitude
the wave's height from the orgin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
electromagnetic spectrum
(EM Spectrum) -- emcompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation, with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths
quantum
the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
planck's constant
Equantum = hv (Js)
6.626 x 10^-34
photoelectric effect
electrons, called photons, are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy Ephoton = hv
atomic emmission spectrum
the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element
speed of light
c= wavelengh *frequency
c = 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
ground state
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom; when an atom gains energy it is said to be an excited state
de Broglie equation
predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics (wavelength = plank's constant /mass*velocity
Heisenberg uncertainity principle
states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
quantum mechanical model of the atom
the atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves
atomic orbital
a 3D region aroung the nucleus describes the electron's probable location
principal quantum number
(n) that indicate the relative sizes and energyies of atomic orbitals. Tha is as n increases, the orbital becomes large, the electron spends more time farther from the nucleus and the atom's energy level increases
principal energy level
n specifies the atom's major energy levels
energy sublevel
principal energy levels contain energy sublevels
visible series
balmer
ultra violet series
lyman
infared series
paschen
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
aufbau principle
state that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
-all orbitals related to an energy sublevel are of equal energy
-in a multi-electron atom, the sequence of energy sublevels within a principal energy level is s, p, d, and f.
- orbitals related to energy sublevle within one principal energy level can overlap orbitals related to energy sublevle within another principal level
Pauli exclusion principl
states that a max of 2 electrons may occuply a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins
Hund's rule
state that singel electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
valence electron
electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals -- generally those orbitals associated with the atom's highest principal energy level
electron dot structure
consists of element's symbol, which represents the atomic nucleus and inner level electrons surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons