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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli
Classical Conditioning
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
a stimulus that invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way
Unconditioned Response (UR)
a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occurs
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
An originally neutral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
Conditioned Response (CR)
After conditioning, the response an organism produces when only a conditioned stimulus is presented
Desensitization Therapy
A conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation
Conditioned Food/Taste Aversion
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Operant Behavior
behavior designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
Operant Conditioning
the type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments
a stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
a stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Law of Effect
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
Avoidance Training
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant such as punishment
Learned Helplessness-
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
Skinner Box-
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals. which limits the available response and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
a decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the US and CS (classical conditioning) or withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning)
Spontaneous Recovery-
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time, without further training
Schedule of Reinforcement-
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
Cognitive Learning-
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
Latent Learning-
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem
Learning Sets-
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
Observational Learning-
learning by observing other people's behavior
Social Learning Theory-
a view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience