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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the largest organ system?
What are the two components of the Integument system?
Cutaneous membrane (skin)
Accessory structures
What is the Cutaneous membrane?
Epidermis- superficial epithelium
Dermis- underlying CT
What are Accessory structures?
Hair, nails, multicellular exocrine glands
-Most located in dermis and protrude through epidermis
Subcutaneous layer
-Deep to dermis (more towards inside)
-has a lot of the main vessels and subcutaneous fats
What are the functions of the Integument
-Protection of the underlying tissues, locking in heat or letting it out
-Excretion- Salt water organics
-Maintenance- of the body temperatur
-Synthesis of vitamin D3
-Storage of lipids
-Detection of pain, pressure
-Social functions-communication
Epidermis is ...
-Avascular- doesn't have any blood vessels
-Dominated by Keratinocytes
-made of 5 layers
Stratum Germinativum
or Stratum basale
-interlocks with dermis
-Forms epidermal ridges (adajent to dermal papili)
-Basal cells dominate
-->replace keratinocytes
Stratum Spinosum
-Superficial to S. Germinativum
-8-10 layers of keratinocytes
-Contain langerhans cells which stimulate defense against microorganisms and superficial skin cancers
Stratum Granulosum
-3-5 layers of keratinocytes
-Cells stop dividing, are nearly dead
-Cells begin producing keratin and keratohyalin
Stratum Lucidum
-Tick skin only (soles of feet, palms of hands)
-Glassy layer
-Cells packed with keratin and excess keratin
Stratum Corneum
-15-20 layers of keratinized cells
-Dry-inhospitable environment
-Lipid secretions maintain the layer
-Water resistant (insensible perspiration and sensible perspiration)
Insensible perspiration
Always loosing moisture, as you breathe, as air blows over you
Sensible perspiration
When yo're working out
Skin color has to do with...
Epidermal Pigmentation and Dermal Circulation
Epidermal pigmentation
-Carotene-most apparent in S. corneum, gives you a orange color
-Malnin-produced by melanocytes (larger in individuals with darker skin)
*Travels in vesicles to keratinocytes
*Pale skin occurs in S. germinativum and spinosum
*Darker Skin- granulosum
*Protects keratinocyes from UV
Dermal Circulation
*When you get embarrassed it increases blood flow and you turn red
*sustained reduction in oxygen, so your hemoglobin is blue-ish so you look blue
Liver unable to excrete bile, yellow pigment in body fluids
-results in yellow tint to skin
Loss of melanocytes in skin
-Splotches of color in skin (Michael Jackson)
Epidermis and Steroid Production
-UV radiation- S. spinosum and germinativum convert cholesterol related steroid to vitamin D3 used in absorption of Ca and P
Epidermal Growth Factor
-Promotes division of germinative cells
-Accelerates production of keratin in keratinocytes
-Stimulates development and repair
-Stimulates synthetic activity and secretion
-Papillary (dermal papillae)
Areolar TIssue
-Capillaries, lymphatics, sensory neurons
-Where you can sense pressure, pain, etc.
-Dense irregular tissue with collagen and elastic fibers
Dermal Strength
-Tolerant of stretching
-Skin Tugor- flexibility and resilience of skin
Stretch marks
-Skin stretches beyond elastic capabilities
-They tend to go away
Lines of Cleavage
-Collagen and elastic fibers arranged in parallel bundles
-Used a lot in surgery field
-Heal better if you cut with the lines
Dermal Circulation
-Cutaneous Plxus
-Papillary plexus
Cutaneous plexus
network of arteries along reticular layer of dermis
Papillary plexus
provides blood to capillaries along epidermis-dermis layers
Bruise, when you break the capillaries in the papillary plexus
-Decubitis ulcers (bedsores)
-Dead skin areas
-Circulation is difficult in areas
-Too much pressure from lying down on teh areas too long
Innervation of Skin
Integument filled with sensory receptors
-Merkel cells monitored by Merkel discs
-Sensors to light touch (Meissner's corpuscles)
-Sensors to deep rpessure (Pacinian corpuscles)
Subcutaneous Layer
-Interwoven with reticular layer
-Stabilizes position of skin in relation to other tissues
-Areolar and adipose tissue
-Superficial region contains many blood vessels
*blood reservoir
Where is the Hair produced?
In the dermis and epidermis
Bulb (of hair)
epithelial cells surrounding papilla
Papilla (of hair)
peg of CT with capillaries and nerves
Root (of hair)
base to 1/2 way to surface
Shaft (of hair)
root to tip
Cuticle (of hair)
outer surface of shaft
-dead keratinized cells
Cortex (of hair)
intermediate layer
Medulla (of hair)
core (soft keratin)
Vellus hairs
"peach fuzz" all over body
Terminal hairs
Heavy, deeply pigmented (head, eyebrows)
What is hair color caused by?
Differences in pigment produced at papilla by mealnocytes
Function of Hair
-Protection (head, nose, ears)
*Acts as physical protection against mosquitos
*Hair in nose-helps slow down air so it can be warmed and helps filter air
*Hair in ears keeps foreign particles out
-Root hair plexus-sensory nerves
-Warning- Arrector pili
Sebaceous gland
-Holocrine, simple branched
-Arrector pili contract to sqeexe oil onto follicle and skin surface
Sebaceous follicles
Glands not associated with hair follicles
Seborrheic dermatitis
Infection of sebaceous follicles
*commonly affect the ears and the T-zone
sweat gland
-Produce sticky, cloudy secretion
*Armpits, around nipples and groin
*Myoepithelial cells contract
Sweat Gland- sensible perspiration
-Cool surface of skin
-excrete water, electrolytes and drugs
-provide protection from environmental hazards
*Flushing-rinses chemicals off of skin
*Dermacidin- kind of an antibacterial- kills some of the microorganisms that might get on your skin
Glandular Secretion Control
Turned on by autonomic nerous system
-If one is on, they are all on
Glandular Secretion Control
more precisely controlled
What are nails composed of?
compressed cells packed with keratin
What is the function of nails?
Protect exposed tips
What are the parts of the nail?
-Nail body (exposed part) covers nail bed
-Production occurs at nail root
-Cuticle- stratum corneum extends over exposed nail
What happens with injury to integument?
-cells of germinativum divide, surround wound
-Macrophages- keep wound clean
-Endothelial cells of blood vessels dived
-Franulation tissue- blod clot, fibroblasts, capillary network
-Lots of lood flow into wound area to bring in nutrients and white blood cells to fight off infection
-Clot dissolves, capillaries decline
-Collagen fibers and ground substance appear
-Fibrous (scar) tissue forms
What is a keloid scar?
when tissue continues beyond what was needed, the scar is raised
What is a first degree burn?
damage to epidermis only
What is a second degree burn?
(partial thickness)
damage to entire epidermis, maybe some dermis
What is a third degree burn?
(Full thickness)
destroy epidermisa nd dermis, extend into subcutaneous tissue
What are some problems with burns that cover greater than 20% of the body?
-It is very difficult to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
-Loss of protection from attack
What is th eleading cause of death for burns that cover over 20% of the body?
What happens with aging and the epidermis
-epidermis thins as germinative layer slows down production
What happens with aging and langerhans cells?
they drop by 50%, (langerhans are involved in imunity)
What happens with aging and the dermis?
the dermis thins, and integument becomes weaker
What happens with aging and skin repair?
It proceeds slowly
What happens with ging and hair and body fat?
The distribution fades
There are declines in what, with the aging of the integument?
-Melanocyte activity
-Glandular activity
-Blood supply to dermis
-Hair follicle funciton