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25 Cards in this Set

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elements in food that are required for the energy, growth, and repair of tissues and regulation of body processes
nutrients
units of heat (energy); specifically, one calorie equals the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C
calories
chemical compounds composed of sugar units; the body's promary source of energy
carbohydrates
a food's ability to cause a feeling of fullness
satiety
fats that promote cholesterol formation; they are in solid form at room temperature; primarily animal fats
saturated fats
a primary form of fat found in the blood; lipid material manufactured within the body and derived from dietary sources
cholesterol
compounds composed of chains of animo acids; the primary components of muscle and connective tissue
proteins
the chief components of protein; can be manufactured by the body or obtained from dietary sources
amino acids
organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes
vitamins
organic substances that control the rate of physiological reactions but are not themsleves altered in the process
enzymes
minerals present in very small amounts in the body; micronutrient elements
trace elements
the abnormal depletion of fluids from the body; severe dehydration can be fatal
dehydration
plant material that cannot be digested; found in cereal grains, fruits, and vegetables
fiber
a diet featuring food selections from each of the levels of the Food Guide Pyramid
balanced diet
vegetables whose plants have flowers with four leaves in the pattern of a cross, such as broccoli
cruciferous vegetables
the process of returning to foods some of the nutritional elements (B vitamins and iron) removed during processing
enriched
the percentage of a food's total calories that are derived from fat; above 30% is considered to be a high fat density
fat density
foods capable of contributing to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems
functional foods
liable statments attesting to a food's contribution to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems
health claims
chemical compounds intentionally added to our food supply to change some aspect of the food, such as its color or texture
food additives
a diet that excludes all meat but does include the comsumption of eggs and dairy products
ovolactovegetarian diet
a vegetarian diet that includes fish, dairy products, and eggs along with plant foods
pesco-vegetarian diet
a vegetarian diet that excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy products
vegan vegetarian diet
an adverse reaction to a specific food which does not involve the immune system; usually caused by an enzyme deficiency
food intolerance
a reaction in which the immune system attacks an otherwise harmless food or ingredient; allergic reactions can range from mildly unpleasant to life threatening
food allergy