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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A triangular organ that produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine.
large intestine
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into solid form before being eliminated.
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which digestive waste material is eliminated from the body.
High-energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and that contain more than twice as much energy as an equal amount of carbohydrates.
A complex carbohydrate, found in plant foods, that cannot be broken down into sugar molecules by the body.
Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions within cells; also large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur; also polymers of amino acids.
unsaturated fats
Fats, such as olive oil and canola oil, that are usually liquid at room temperature.
Tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which nutrients from digested food are absorbed.
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
The largest and heaviest organ inside the body; it breaks down substances and eliminates nitrogen from the body.
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
gall bladder
The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
A substance in food that provides energy or raw materials for the body to grow, repair worn parts, or function properly.
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as sugars and starches, that are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are a major source of energy and provide the raw materials to make parts of cells.
saturated fat
Fats, such as butter, that are usually solid at room temperature.
A waxy, fatlike substance, found only in animal products, that is an important part of your body's cells; can build up on artery walls.
An organic compound that serves as a helper molecule in a variety of chemical reactions in the body.
Nutrient elements that are needed by the body in small amounts and that are not made by living things.
Food Guide Pyramid
A diagram developed by nutritionists to help people plan an healthy diet.
Percent Daily Value
A value on the nutritional fact label of a food that indicates how the nutritional content of one serving fits into the diet of a person who consumes 2,000 Calories a day.
The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion.
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering it.
A thick, slippery substance produced by the body.
amino acids
Small molecules that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules; also, 20 kinds of organic compounds that are monomers of proteins.
small intestine
The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place.
a J-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomon that expands to hold all of the food swallowed.
a sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells, also a monomer of many complex carbohydrates.