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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 3 things every cell has
nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
diff. in DNA prokaryotes and eukaryotes
prokaryotes in a singular circular molecule
eukaryotes in nucleus, surrounded by double membrane cuclear envelope
which has organelles in cytoplasm: prokaryotes or eukaryotes
what encloses cell and separates everythign from it?
plasma membrane
what is phopholipid bilayer made of?
phospholipids, alcohol with 2 hydrophobic heads

what helps cell interact with environment?
proteins in the plasma membrane
what helps molecules move over plasma membrane?
transfer proteins
what induces changes in the cell when they touch hormones?
receptor proteins
Name the 3 principles of cell theory.
1. every organism is 1 cell or more., heredity in everything
2. smallest unit of organization
3. all cells are just copies of old ones
describe plasma membrane.
phospholipid bilayer, selectively permeable
describe Surface Area to Volume Area Ratio
as surface area increases, volume area increases by 10 to the 3rd
what are advantages of smaller cells
smaller cells processes occur quicker

larger ones fight this having multiple nucleus etc.
what are prokaryotes
bacteria cells
what do prokaryotes contain?
cytoplasm, plasma membrane, inside rigid cell wall
what do prokaryotes do?
harvest light for photosynthesis
break down dead organisms
cause disease
what are the two main prokaryotes?
archeabacteria and bacteria
diff. archeabacteria and bacteria
archeabacteria is old

bacteria new
in Prokaryotes, cell walls are made of ___
what is peptidoglycan
carbohydrate matrix
what do cell walls do? (3)
protect cell, maintain shape, prevent excess water
what are the two bacterias?
gram pos and gram neg
gram positive is _____ layered cell wall and leaves a ____ stain.
single, purple
gram negative is ______ layered cell wall and leaves a _______ stain.
multilayered, red
protein fibers extending from bacteria is called
prokaryotes dont have _________ like eukaryotes, (strength comes from cell wall)
since there is no mem bound organelles, ___&___ have access all over the cell
dna and enzymes
plant cells have ____ which stores protein, pigments, waste.

animals have ______, transport materials.
central vacoules

eukaryotic cells protected by
made of protein filaments + microtubules, keeps shape

vacuoule stores water

vesicles transport proteins from ER to golgi app.
no nuclei in ___ blood cells
dense ribosomal synthesizing portion of active dna
made of inner and outer membrance which held together by nuclear pores
nuclear envelope
allows proteins to enter and RNA to exit
nuclear envelope
chromosoms made of strands called
DNA wraps around _____ which are made of _____

ER is made of a
lipid bilayer
netlike, inner region of ER is called
outer region of ER is
____ER has ribosomes and prteins and lets _______ into _______
rough, rna, proteins
______ER has embedded enzymes which catalyze synthesis of ________
smooth, lipids & carbs.
flattened stack of membranes, the _____ _____, make up the _____ _____, which packs and distributes molecules made in one place to be used in another.
golgi bodies and golgi apparatues
Proteins enter the golgi app through the ____ ____, synthesize, then exit out the _____ _____, proteins and lipids then rest.
cis face
______are the sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
sausage shaped organelle in ______, Cells bound by ___ membrane and ____ membrane
what are the 2 regions of the inner membrane and where are they located
matrix - insdie the inn. mem.

inter membrane space - between two mitchodria membranes
______ is a cell in a cell that has own DNA tellin proteins what to do
__________ in plants let them phosynthesize, has own DNA
what are the 3 parts of the cytoskeleton
actin filament
intermediate filament
what are the subunits of the parts of cytoskeleton and what do they do?
actin - 2 actin strand twisted - cell contraction, crawling & pinching, cell extension

Microtubule - protein protafilaments - facilitate cell movement, movement of organelles within the cell

Intermediate Filament - fibrous protein molcules - cell support
assembles microtubes
_______ cells dont have a _________ ______ so they excrete ___________ to form an _________ in the space surrounding the cell for strength.
cell wall
extracellular matrix