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38 Cards in this Set

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Members of a suborder of Primates, the Prosimii. Traditionally, the suborder includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
Prosimians
Members of a suborder of Primates, the Anthropoidea. Traditionally, the suborder includes monkeys, apes, and humans.
Anthropoids
The technical term for the formal grouping (class) of mammals.
Mammalia
Referring to a trait or combination of traits present in an ancestral form.
Primitive
Evolved for a particular function; usually refers to a specific trait, but may also refer to the entire way of life of an organism.
Specialized
Scientists who study the evolution, anatomy, and behavior of nonhuman primates. Those who study behvaior in noncaptive animals are usually trained as physical anthropologists.
Primatologists
The form (shape, size) of anatomical structures; can also refer to the entire organism.
Morphology
Having a diet consisting of many food types (i.e., plant materials, meat, and insects).
Omnivorous
Active during the day.
Diurnal
Active during the night.
Nocturnal
The condition whereby visual images are, to varying degreses, superimposed on one another. This provides for depth perception, or the perception of the external environment in three dimensions. Stereoscopic vision is partly a function of structures in the brain.
Stereoscopic vision
Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward-facing eyes; essential to depth perception.
Binocular vision
Tree-living; adapted to life in the trees.
Arboreal
The entire way of life of an organism: where it lives, what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators, etc.
Adaptive niche
The traditional view that primate characteristics can be explained as a consequence of primate diversification into arboreal habitats.
Arboreal hypothesis
An anatomical term referring to a hypothetical line that divides the body into right and left halves.
Midline
The elevated portions (bumps) on the chewing surfaces of premolar and molar teeth.
Cusps
What is the human dental formula?
2.1.2.3./2.1.2.3.
What is the New World monkey dental formula?
2.1.3.3./2.1.3.3.
Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion; the basic mammalian (and primate) form of locomotion; majority are arboreal.
Quadrupedal
A form of locomotion in which the body is suspended beneath the hands and support is alternated from one forelimb to the other; arm swinging; only the small gibbons and siamangs of Southeast Asia use this form of locomotion almost exclusively.
Brachiation
Members of the superfamily Hominoidea. This group includes apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, and siamangs) and humans.
Hominoids
Found only on the island of Madagascar.
Lemurs
Found in tropical forest and woodland habitats of India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, & Africa; able to survive in mainland areas by adopting a nocturnal activity pattern at a time when most other prosimians became extinct.
Lorises
Restricted to island areas in Southeast Asia; nocturnal insectivores, leaping onto prety from lower branches and shrubs.
Tarsiers
List traits that distinguish anthropoids from prosimians.
1. Generally larger body size
2. Larger brain
3. Reduced reliance on the sense of smell, indicated by absence of rhinarium
4. Increased reliance on vision
5. Greater degree of color vision
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
Sexual dimorphism
The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms
Homoplasy
The formal designation for the superfamily of anthropoids that includes apes and humans.
Hominoidea
Describe ways apes and humans differe from monkeys.
1. Generally larger body size
2. Absence of a tail
3. Shortened trunk
4. Differences in position and musculature of the shoulder joint
5. More complex behavior
6. More complex brain and enhanced cognitive abilities
7. Increased period of infant development and dependency
Primates are members of the ________ subgroup, by far the most common living mammals.
placental
Eye sockets are enclosed at the sides by a ring of bone called the _______.
postorbital bar
· The region of the skull that contains the structures of the middle ear is completely encircled by a bony structure called a _________.
auditory bulla
True or False: The majority of primates are mostly arboreal and live in forest or woodland habitats.
true
True or False: · Primates are generally omnivorous and are one example of the overall lack of specialization in primates.
true
Most primates have four kinds of teeth. What are they?
incisors and canines for biting and cutting and premolars and molars for chewing
True or False: Taxonomies not only organize diversity into categories, but also illustrate evolutionary and genetic relationships between species and groups of species.
true
What are characteristics that distinguish lemurs and lorises from anthropoids?
more laterally placed eyes, differences in reproductive physiology, shorter gestation and maturation periods, and retention of a claw (“grooming claw”) on the second toe
Lemurs and lorises also possess a dental specialization known as the “_____ ____,” formed by forward-projecting lower incisors and canines and used in grooming and feeding.
dental comb