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33 Cards in this Set

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area effect
the idea that larger islands support more species than smaller ones at equivalent distances from sources of colonizer species.
camouflage
Coloration, form, patterning, or behavior that helps predators or prey blend with the surroundings and escape detection.
carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals in a population (or species) that a given environment can sustain indefinitely.
climax community
Array of species that has stabilized under prevailing habitat conditions.
coevolution
Joint evolution of two closely interacting species by changes in the selection pressures operating between the two.
commensalism
Ecological interaction between two (or more) species in which one benefits directly and the other is affected little, if at all.
community
All populations in a habitat. Also, a group of organisms with similar life-styles.
interspecific competition
Type of ecological interaction in which individuals of different species compete for a share of resources.
intraspecific competition
Type of ecological interaction in which individuals of the same population compete for a share of resources.
competitive exclusion
Theory that two or more species that require identical resources cannot coexist indefinitely.
distance effect
Idea that only species adapted for long-distance dispersal can be potential colonists of islands far from their home range.
ecological succession
Processes by which a community develops in sequence, from pioneer species to an end array of species that remain in equilibrium over some region.
endangered species
Endemic (native) species highly vulnerable to extinction.
exotic species
Species that left its home range and became established in a new community.
geographic dispersal
An organism moves out of its home range and becomes established in a new community, as an exotic species.
habitat
[L. habitare, to live in] Place where an organism or species lives; characterized by its physical and chemical features and its species.
host
Living organism exploited by a parasite. A definitive host harbors the mature stage of a parasite's life cycle. One or more intermediate hosts harbor immature stages.
mimicry
Close resemblance in form, behavior, or both between one species (the mimic) and another (its model). Serves in deception, as when an orchid mimics a female insect and so attracts males that pollinate it.
mutualism
[L. mutuus, reciprocal] Symbiotic interaction that benefits both participants.
niche (nitch)
[L. nidas, nest] Sum total of all activities and relationships in which individuals of a species engage as they secure and use the resources required to survive and reproduce.
parasite
[Gk. para, alongside, + sitos, food] Organism that lives in or on a host for at least part of its life cycle. It feeds on specific tissues and usually does not kill its host outright.
parasitism
Symbiotic interaction in which a species that feeds on its tissues (a parasite) benefits and the other (its host) is harmed.
pioneer species
Any opportunistic colonizer of barren or disturbed habitats. Adapted for rapid growth and dispersal.
predation
Ecological interaction in which a predator feeds on a prey organism.
predator
[L. prehendere, to grasp, seize] A heterotroph that eats other living organisms (its prey), does not live in or on them (as parasites do), and may or may not kill them.
prey
Organism that another organism (e.g., a predator) captures as a food source.
resource partitioning
Of two or more species that compete for the same resource, a sharing of the resource in different ways or at different times, which permits them to coexist.
restoration ecology
Attempts to reestablish biodiversity in ecosystems severely altered by mining, agriculture, and other disturbances.
riparian zone
Narrow corridor of vegetation along a stream or river.
primary succession
[L. succedere, to follow after] Ecological pattern by which a community develops in orderly progression, from the time that pioneer species colonize a barren habitat to the climax community.
secondary succession
Ecological pattern by which a disturbed area of a community recovers and moves back toward the climax state.
symbiosis
[Gk. sym, together, + bios, life, mode of life] Individuals of one species live near, in, or on those of another species for at least part of life cycle (e.g., in commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism).
warning coloration
Of many toxic species and their mimics, avoidance signals (strong colors and patterns) that predators learn to recognize.