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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the functions an organism performs
exchange with the environment
substances dissolve into the acqueous medium and diffuse across the cell's plasma membrane
sack body walls
2 cells thick to facilitate diffusion
columnar epithelia
large cytoplasmic voumes, located where secretion/absorption take place
closely joined cells, covers outside of body, organs and cavities
connective tissue
binds and supports other tissue. losely scattered cells in cellular matrix
muscle tissue
long cells called muscle fibers, contract in response to nerve signals
nerve tissue
sense stimuli and transmit signal throughout the animal
flow of energy through an animal, determines how much food the animal needs. molecules from food are used to make ATP. any remaining are used for biosynthesis
growth, storage, and reproduction
metabolic rate
the amount of energy an animal uses in a certain amount of time. affected by endo vs. ecto, size and activity.
birds and mammals, body heat is generated by metabolism. higher metabolic rate
amphibians and reptiles, body heat is absorbed from environment, lower metabolic rate,
size and activity on metabolic rate
*metabolic rate is inversely related to body size
*maximum metabolic rate is inversely related to the duration of the activity
basal metabolic rate- metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest
standard metabolic rate- metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest
energy partitions
energy is divided into BMR/SMR, homeostasis, activity, growth and reproduction
a balance between external changes and the animal’s internal control mechanisms that oppose the changes
the internal environment of a vertebrate that is very different from the external
homeostatic control system
a receptor, a control center, and an effector
positive feedback
a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change
negative feedback
change in variable triggers control mechanism to counteract further change in the same direction
ectotherms vs. endotherms
ectotherms tolerate greater variation in temperature. Endothermy is more energetically expensive because it buffers the animal’s internal temps against external fluctuations and enables the animal to maintain a high level of aerobic metabolism
exchnage of heat (4)
convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation
reduces heat flow between an animal and its environment (integumentary system)
circulatory adaptions
vasodilation-blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss (give off heat)
vasoconstriction-blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss
arrangment of blood vessels that reduces heat loss
cooling by evaporative heat loss
lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat, bathing, panting
behavioral resonses
postures that maxamize or minimize absorption of heat
adjusting metabolic heat protection
feedback mechanisms
negative feedback involving many organ systems
animals adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks. cellular adjustments or adjustments of insulation and metabolic heat production
physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases. enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions
sustained torpor
summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies
secrete a protein/carb complex, specific cells of cartilage
red blood cells, contains hemoglobin, transports oxygen
white blood cell, functions in immunity
bone forming cells that deposit a matrix and calcium, phosphate and magnesium ions
secrete protein ingredients of extracellular fiber
amoeboid cells that engulf bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis
skeletal muscle
unbranched fibers, striated, attached to bones, voluntary movement
cardiac muscle
branched fibers, striated, heart, pump blood
smooth muscle
spindle shaped cells, unstriated, digestive tract, involuntary movement