Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nucleoside
a molecule consisting of the sugar and base
what acts as substrates for DNA synthesis
only the nucleoside triphosphates
phosphodiester bond
link individual nucleotides into a polynucleotide between their 5’ and 3’ ends, removes two outer phosphates (beta and gamma phosphates) from one nucleotide and the 3’ OH from another
use for the minor groove
histones prefer to have AT rich minor grooves positioned towards the histones
nucleosomes
repeat every 200 bp with a 80 bp linker region between the nucleosomes
nuclease hypersensitive regions
regions that are resistant to histone binding, generally associated with gene regulatory proteins
H1
if binds to the chromatin structure can actually make it more tightly packed
genes and chromosomal genetic material in different cell types
different cell types have and express different genes but have the same chromosomal genetic material
RNAse H
erases the RNA primer
single strand DNA binding protein
prevents single strands from forming hairpins
DNA primase
lays down a RNA primer for DNA replication to occur, produce it de novo without a free 3’ OH, but 1 error in every 10^4 incorporations
transitions
purine-to-purine or pyrimidine-to-pyrimidine changes
transversions
purine to pyrimidine or vice versa
direct repair
act directly on damaged nucleotides, converting each one back to its original structure
excision repair
involves excision of a segment of the polynucleotide containing a damaged site, followed by resynthesis of the correct nucleotide sequence by a DNA polymerase
mismatch repair
corrects errors of replication (ie. mismatches), again by excising a stretch of single-stranded DNA containing the offending nucleotide and then repairing the resulting gap
recombination repair
used to mend double stranded breaks
why recombination
provides variability without fidelity, meiosis, allows for traits and alleles to propagate
general recombination
based on homology, occurs during meiosis (crossing over), and occurs over long stretches of DNA
site specific recombination
need not have any homology, can occur at any time, and occurs at short, specific DNA nucleotides
transcriptome
initial product of genome expression, a collection of RNA molecules from protein-coding genes
proteome
cell’s repertoire of proteins
genome expression steps
1. accessing the genome
2. assembly of the transcription initiation complex (must be adjacent to the active genes, nowhere else)
3. synthesis of RNA
4. processing of RNA
5. RNA degradation
6. assembly of the translation initiation complex
7. protein synthesis
8. protein folding and protein processing
9. protein degradation
mRNA
short lived, degraded soon after synthesis, only 2-4% of the total RNA
rRNA
most abundant RNA (80%)
small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA)
a diverse group with a range of functions
MicroRNAs (miRNAs)
are a family of ~21-25 nucleotide small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level
promoters
only found upstream of genes
what signals the poly-A tail
signal sequence in the mRNA (AAUAAA), cleaved at an internal site and poly-A tail is added
three stages in translation
1. initiation
2. elongation
3. termination
how do ribosomes recognize mRNAs
5’ cap