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29 Cards in this Set

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Integumentary System (define)
serves to protect an individual from the environment; its receptors tell us about the outside world and help regulate body temperature.
Integumentary System -
Structure
Consists of cutaneous membrane (skin), which includes the epidermis, dermis and accessory structures (hair follicles, nails and exocrine glands)
Integumentary System -
The Epidermis (def)
made of stratified squamous epithelium; has 5 layers of thick skin (keratinocytes) and four layers of thin skin; includes 4 cell types
Integumentary System -
The Epidermis: Cell types
keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel cells (detect sensation), Langerhans cells (phagocytic cells of immune system)
Integumentary System -
The Epidermis:
Layers
Division of the basal cells in the stratum germinativium prduce new keratinocytes that replace superficial cells
Integumentary System -
The Epidermis:
Layers
As epidermal cells differentiate, they pass through the stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum (of thick skin) and stratum corneum; keratinocytes move towrads the surface and accumulate keratin; ultimately cells are shed or lost
Integumentary System -
The Epidermis:
Thick and Thin Skin
Thin covers most of the body, thick covers the soles of feet and palms of hands; epidermal ridges on the skin improve grip and inc. skin's sensitivity, their pattern is genitcally determined; ridges interlock via dermal papilae
Integumentary System -
The Dermis:
Dermal Organization - Papillary layer
Superficial layer, assoc with dermal papillae, contains blood vessels, lymphatics, and sensory nervers; supports and nourishes the epidermis
Integumentary System -
The Dermis:
Dermal Organization - Reticular layer
Deeper layer, consists of meshworked collagens and elastic fibers oriented in all directions to resist tension in the skin.
Integumentary System -
The Dermis:
Dermal Organization - Other Dermal Components
An extensive blood supply to the skin includes the cutaneous and papillary pleuxes; the papillary layer contains capillaries that drain into the veins of the pleuxes.
Integumentary System -
The Subcutaneous Layer
aka hypodermis or superficial fascia; not part of integument, it stabilizes the skin's position against underlying organs and tissues, yet permits independent movement.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures: Hair follicles and hair structure
Hair orig. from hair follicles that extend into the dermis; each hair has a bulb, root and shaft
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures: Hair follicles and hair production
Involves a special keratinization of the epithelial cells of the hair matrix;at the center of the matrix, cells form a soft core, medulla, cells at the edge of hair form a hard cortex; the cuticle coats the hair and is made of dead kert. cells.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures: Hair follicles and hair sheaths
The lumen of the follicle is lined by an internal root sheath produced by the hair matrix; an external root sheath surrounds the internal root sheath b/w the skin surface and hair matrix.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures: Hair follicles and hair membranes
The glassy membrane is the thickened basal lamina external to the external root sheath; its wrapped by dense CT
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Hair follicles and hair - Root hair plexus (define)
Plexus of sensory nerves that surrounds the base of each hair follicle and detects the movement of the shaft; hair is elevated by by contractions of the arrector pilli muscle that pulls on the folicle
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Hair follicles and hair - Types
Vellius (peach fuzz), intermediate hairs and heavy terminal hairs make up the hair population on our bodies.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Hair follicles and hair growth
Hairs grow and shed according to the hair growth cycle, a single hair grows for 2-5 years and is then shed.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Glands in the Skin - Sebaceous
Oil gland, d/c waxy, oily secretion (sebum) into hair follicles; Sebaceous follicles are large seb. glands that produce no hair, they comm. with the epidermis
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Glands in the Skin - Apocrine
Sweat glands, the numerous merocrine sweat glands (eccrine) produce a thin, watery secretion (sensible perspiration/sweat)
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Glands in the Skin - Mammary
Resemble larger apocrine glands
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Glands in the Skin - Ceruminous glands
Located in the ear canal, they are modified sweat glands that produce ear wax (cerumen)
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Nails - Function
Protect exposed tips of fingers and toes and help limit their distortion when they are subject to mechanical stress.
Integumentary System -
Acessory Structures:
Nails - Structure
The nail body covers the nail bed, w/nail production occurring at the nail root; the cuticle (eponychium) is formed by a fold of the stratium cornem; the nail fold extends from the root to the exposed nail.
What happens when skin ages?
There is a decline in the activity of the sebaceous glands.
Whay is skin color a product of?
dermal blood supply, pigment comp, pigment concentration
What does sensible perpiration/ sweat do?
cools skin to reduce body temp, provides excretory root for water and electrolytes and dilutes harmful chemicals and discourgaes bacterial growth on skin.
What is insensible perspiration?
water loss due to penetration of intersitial (situated between the cells of a structure or part) fluid through the surface of the skin
When the skin ages, what effects does it have?
Epidermis thins, melanocyte activity decreases along with glandular activity.