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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define Tissues:
group of cells of similar appearance & similar function having an interdependency.
define organs:
discrete structure comprised of more than 1 tissue; organs will have more than 1 function.
define organ systems:
linked group of organs
linkage can be physical or functional
ex: endocrine (not phys linked)
ex: digestive sys (phys linked)
Four basic functional types of tissues

(derived from embryonic tissue types)
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscle
4. nervous
Epithelial tissues
found in coverings and linings
(digestive & respiratory tracts)
#1 function is protection
also functions in absorption and secretion.
epithelial cell types
1. squamous
2. cuboidal
3. columnar
squamous: flattened; lots of surface, little depth
generally protetive function
found in skin
contain more cytoplasm (more secretive/absorptive)
found in liver and kidney
taller, column shaped
more cytoplasm (absorption/secretion)
found in gut and glands
epithelial cell arrangements:

1. simple
2. stratified
1. simple: a single layer of cells (lines body cavities, ducts, tubes)

2. stratified: multiple layers of cells (skin)
stratum corneum
top layer of skin
sloughs off (process of lost cells)
stratum basale
deep layers
bigger cells
cell division
why is upper layer dead?
as cells move upward, they start accumulating keratin and losing cytoplasm. "keratin" protein that makes up hair/fingernails
connective tissues
*most abundant & widely distributed of all tissues*

identify the distinguishing features
1. fibroblasts: live cells which secrete fibers & matrix
2. fibers: non-living, solid protein structures, rigid, flexible or elastic
3. matrix: filler
3 types of connective tissues
1. loose connective tissue
2. dense irregular
3. dense regular
loose connective tissue
soft, weak
space filler
contains WBCs
framework for epithelium
dense irregular tissue
fibers oriented in multiple directions. (strength component)
ex: dermis (lower layer of skin) contains dense irregular and forms capsules around organs that don't stretch much
dense regular tissue
fibers oriented in same diretion (weaker in one dir./max. strength in another)
ex: tendon
specialized connective tissue:
1. cartilage
2. bone
3. adipose
4. blood/lymph
tendons: attach muscle to bones (cannot stretch)

ligaments: attanch bone to bone ( can stretch) also elastic
flexible conn. tissue
found: nose, earlobes, vertebral discs in spine, joints
cells=chondrocytes exist in small spaces called lacunae
matrix lacks density
no blood supply to cartilage
nutrients, waste diffuses thru the matrix
rigid physical structure which muscles can contract
fibroblasts called: osteocytes
matrix is calcified: hydroxyapatite (calcium)
osteocytes exist in lacunae
osteocytes arranged in concentric rings
osteon: basic unit of bone structure
osteon is cylindrical
blood vessel surrounded by haversian canal
fat tissue
matrix contains triglyceride
fluid connective tissues
matrix is fluid
muscle tissue types
differ in location, looks and how they are activated)
1. skeletal
2. smooth
3. cardiac
contractile proteins
actin/myosin interact to cause contraction
muscle tissue results in:
1. gross (overall) movement
2. internal movement (digestive system)
connects to bone (skeleton)
gross movement
has striated appearance
actin/myosin organized in bands
controlled by nervous sys,
charac. by rapid and strong contraction
assoc'd w/tubes & glands (dig. tract--propel food thru)
smooth musc. NOT attached to bone, NOT striated
autonomic: nervous sys.
contractions are slow & gradual; sustain longer than skeletal
only found in heart
has banded appearance
musc. cells are branched and adjoin at intercalated disks
contraction is rapid & strong