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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
affective synchrony
matched emotional states of parents and children and in babies monitoring of their parents' facial expressions and whereabouts
babbling
consists of repetition of certain syllables such as da-da, or ma-ma, and those sounds have come to symbolize the terms used for mother and father
contingent responsiveness
allow the infant to be actively engaged in the roles of elicitor as well as receiver of parental attention
cultural congruence
children's development is more likely to be enhanced by caregivers who can speak their language and who look and act in ways that are somewhat familiar
fetal alchohol syndrome
what happens to an infant when the mother consumes alcohol while pregnant
fine motor skills
development contributes to greater dexterity in the use of fingers and hands
gross motor skills
includes the development of large muscle groups involved in the movement of the body and the arms and legs, resulting in the infant/toddler's ability to turn over, sit up crawl, walk and climb
kangaroo care
used in many infant intensive care units to promote survival of at-risk infants
linguistic turn taking
allowing babies to respond to what you are saying by making pauses
mutual gazing
parents spending a great deal of time looking in to their infants faces
neonatal abstinence syndrome
when infants suffer withdrawal symptoms; tremors, restlessness, hyperactive reflexes, high pitched cries, vomiting, fevers, sweating, rapid respiration, seizures, and somtimes death
parentese
when talking to babies that is intended to gain and maintain the attention of infants; higher pitched, has more low to high fluctuations
parent-infant synchrony
depends on the abilities of the parent and the infant to accurately read and respond to cues provided by the other person
sensorimotor intelligence
view that infants think exclusively with their senses and motor skills during the stage of development.
tag-team parenting
when parents work and care for their children; work at night, care for children at day
teratogens
agents and conditions, including malnutrition, viruses, drugs, chemicals, and stressors that can interfere with prenatal development and contribute to birth defects or death
conserve
the failure to understand the quantity of matter (such as clay) does not change when the shape changes
egocentric
means that younger children have an excessive reliance on their own point of view, coupled with a corresponding inability to be objective
enuresis
any instance of involuntary urination by a child over 3 years of age
fast mapping
during the preschool period when children learn words at the rapid rate of 10 to 20 new words per day
fine motor skills
involves the ability to coordinate smaller muscles in the arms, hands, and fingers
gross motor skills
the use of large muscles in the legs or arms as well as general strength and stamina
guided participation
when parents participate with children in their adventures and social experiences
iron-deficiency anemia
the most common diet deficiency durin the preschool years; one of its main symptoms is chronic fatigue
myelination
the insulating process that speeds up the transmission of neural processes
overgeneralization
when children think something that walks on four legs is always a dog
overregularization
a standard rule of past tense is applied to the English language, which has many exceptions to the standard rules
personal boundaries
what children might or might not do, and what they can and cannot accomplish
preconcept
when preschoolers first symbolic concepts are not as complete or as logical as are those of older children and adults
preoperational thought
between ages 2 and 6; where children start to use symbolic thinking
reverse-order sentences
an example would be "you can have a cookie if you clean the kitchen" instead of saying "if you clean the kitchen you will get a cookie"
self-esteem
refers to judgments of their worth and feelings associated with those judgments
self-reliance
refers to the ability to behave in ways that are considered by parents and other caregivers to be acceptable
sense of guilt
the young child feels guilty about behaviors that significant others label as wrong or bad
sense of initiative
defined by the skills that demonstrate independence
social coordination of movement
being able to change directions while running in anticipation of another child's movement in a game of tag
symbolic thinking
involves the use of words, gestures, pictures, or actions to represent ideas, things, or behaviors
code-switching
parallels childrens achievement of the ability to decenter their attention
intersubjectivity
shared understanding of the task
scaffolding
the supportive strategies parents use to guide their children in solving cognitive tasks