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35 Cards in this Set

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What do green plants consist of?
Green algae and land plants
Why are green plants important?
-Agriculture, forestry, and horticulture
-Productivity of plants
-Ecosystem services (oxygen, build soil, nutrients, hold water, climate)
-Primary producers
-Carbon cycle
-Plant based fuels and fibers
Bioprospecting?
Effort to find naturally occuring compounds that can be used as drugs, fragrances, insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.
What are the three major categories of land plants?
1. Nonvascular plants
2. Seedless vascular plants
3. Seed plants
Nonvascular plants
-Bryophytes!
-Lack vascular tissue to conduct water and provide support
-Liverworts
-Hornworts
-Mosses
Seedless vascular plants
Have vascular tissue.
Do not make seeds
-Horsetails
-Ferns
-Whisk Ferns
-Lycophytes or Club Mosses
Seed
Consists of an embryo and a store of nutritive tissue, surrounding by a tough protective layer
Seed plants
Vascular tissue. Seeds.
-Gymnosperms
-Cycads
-Gingkoes
-Conifers
-Gnetophytes
-Angiosperms
Carpel
In angiosperms, the protective structure where seeds develop
When were the first land plants?
476 million years ago
Who did land plants evolve from?
Green algae
Who are the land plant's closest living relative and what is that called?
Charales
Sister group
What is the molecular phylogeny of green algae and land plants?
Green algae are paraphyletic.
Land plants are monophyletic.
Who is the most basal group among land plants?
Nonvascular plants
How did land plants transition from water to land?
-Cuticle and stomata for dry conditions
-Vascular tissue for transporting water
-Alternation of generations for reproduction
Cuticle
Waxy, watertight sealant that gives plants the ability to survive in dry environments
Stomata
Pores that open and close for gas exchange
What water-conducting cells helped increase structural support in a series of steps?
-Lignin
-Tracheids
-Vessels
Lignin
The first vascular tissue that reinforced primary cell walls
Tracheids
Contain gaps in secondary cell walls
Vessels
Contain gaps in primary and secondary cell walls
Mosses
Gametophyte is large.
Sporophyte depends on gametophyte.
Ferns
Sporophyte is large, but when young depends on gametophyte
Conifers
Sporophyte is dominant.
Gametophyte depnds on sporophyte
Angiosperms
Similar to gymnosperms, but ovules and seeds form in enclosures called ovaries
What is the result of meiosis?
Spores (n)
What is the result of fertilization?
Zygote (2n)
Pollen
Microscopic structure which is a reduced male gametophyte of seed plants
-Seed plants lost dependence on water for fertilization
Heterosporous
Seed plants.
Microsporangia --> Microspores --> Male gametophyte --> Sperm

Megasporangia --> megaspores --> Female gametophyte --> Eggs
Homosporous
Sporangium --> Spores --> Bisexual gametophyte --> Sperm AND --> Egg
Antheridia
Where sperm form
Archegonia
Where eggs form
Seed
Structure that encloses and protects a developing embryo and a food supply
-In angiosperms, surrounded by fruit
-Aids in dispersal
Fruits
Derived from ovaries and contain seeds
What are the 3 adaptations of angiosperms?
1. Vessels
2. Flowers
3. Fruits