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53 Cards in this Set

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What are the 2 skull fractures identified in the newborn? Which is most common?
Linear and depressed fractures. Linear account for 70%.
This is caused by damage to the upper plexus and usually results from a stretching or pulling away of the shoulder from the head such as might occur with shoulder dystocia or with a difficult vertex or breech delivery.
Erb palsy (Erb-Duchenne paralysis)
What are the clinical manifestations of Erb Palsy?
paralysis of the affeted extremity and muscles. The arm hangs limp alongside the body. The shoulder and arm are adducted and internally rotated. The elbow is extended, and the forearm is pronated, with the wrist and fingers flexed; grasp reflex possible. Moro reflex missing on affected side.
Nursing care for newborn with bracial palsy
The affected arm should be abducted 90 degrees with external shoulder rotation, forearm supination, and extension at the wrist with the palm facing the infant's face.
- Pass ROM after first week
- Dressing: affected arm first, undressing: unaffected arm.
-parents taught to use football position when holding / avoid picking up by axilla.
When is facial palsy most noticed? How long does it last? What nursing care is involved?
-when the infant cries.
-It resolves within hours or days of birth.
-aid the infant in sucking and helping mother with feeding techniques.
The mother will need additional assistance in helping the infant grasp and compress the areolar area.
If the lid of the eye on the affected side does not close completely, artificial tears can be instilled daily to prevent drying of the conjunctiva, sclera, and cornea. The lid is often taped shut to prevent injury.
Phrenic nerve paralysis results in:

What's the nursing care?
Diaphragmatic paralysis as demonstrated by ultrasonography,m which shows paradoxic chest movement and an elevated diaphragm. Because injury to the phrenic nerve is usually unilateral, the lung on the affected side does not expand, and respiratory efforts are ineffectual. The infant is positioned on the affected side to facilitate maximum expansion of the uninvolved lung.
A life-threatening collection of blood in the subdural space most often produced by the stretching and tearing of the large veins in the tenorium of the cerebellum, the dural membrane that separates the cerebrem from the cerebellum.
Subdural hematoma. Usually happens with a primiparous mother, with labor less than 3 hours; forcept birth or a LGA. It is especially serious because it can't be aspirated by subdural tap.
These almost always occur from complicated breech births, especially when version and extraction are used. Clinical manifestations include: respiratory failure and flaccid extremities. stillbirth not uncommon.
Spinal cord injuries.
The presense of microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other tissues
Sepsis
What is the most common infecting organism of Sepsis?
E. coli, which may be present in the vagina and accounts for approximately half of all cases.
When does early-onset sepsis occur and when does late-onset sepsis occur?
Early: acquired in the perinatal period
Late: 7 to 30 days of age.
Septicemia
generalized infection in the bloodstream.
Neonatal sepsis is characterized by
lethargy, poor feeding, poor weight gain, and irritability.
Be cautious, these are very similar to hypoglycemia and respiratory distress so additional labs are needed.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella cause serious infections and morbidity. They are seen commonly in neonates because of:
Artificial and long natural fingernails.
Plexus injury that is caused by damage to the upper plexus usually resulting from a stretching or pulling away of the shoulder from the head such as might occur with shoulder dystocia or with a difficult vertex or breech delivery
Erb's palsy (Erb- Duchenne paralysis)
Life threatening collection of blood in the subdrual space, most often produced by the stretching and tearing of the large veins in the dural membrane that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Subdural Hematoma
result of phrenic nerve paralysis
Diaphragmatic paralysis
presence of microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other tissues
Sepsis
generalized infection in the bloodstream
Septicemia
acronym used to designate certain maternal infections during early pregnancy that are known to be associated with various congenital malformations and disorders
TORCH
multisystem disease caused by a protozoa found in the feces of infected cats
Toxoplasmosis
________ and ___________ The pathogenic organisms responsible for opthalmia neonatorum
Gonorrhoeae; Chlamydia
_______________ infection caused by Treponema pallidum. ________________ Copius, clear, serosanguineous mucous discharge from the nose of an infant infected with this microorganism.
syphilis; snuffles
Viral infectin of the liver that is not associate with an increase in malformations, stillbirths, or IUGR although the risk for preterm birth is increased; a vaccine is available for prevention and immune globulin is available for treatment.
Hep B Virus (HBV)
infection with this virus during pregnancy can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or conenital illness including microcephaly, healing loss, and mental retardation; it is the most common cause of congenital viral infections in the US
Cytomegalovirus
Neonatal infection with this virus can result in disseminated infection, localized CNS disease, or localized infection of the skin, eye or mouth
Herpes simplex virus
Virus responsible for fifth disease. infection with this virus during pregnancy can result in miscarriage or the development of fetal hydrops and IUGR.
Parvovirus B19
Disorder that occurs when the blood groups of the mother and newborn are different; the most common of these are Rh incompatibility and ABO incompatibility.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Condition in which the fetus produces large numbers of immature erythrocytes to replace those hemolyzed as a result of severe Rh incompatibility.

The most severe form of this condition; it is characterized by marked anemia with hypoxia, cardiac decompensation, cariomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized edema.
Erythroblastosis fetalis; hydrops fetalis
Blood test used to determine whether maternal blood contains antibodies to the Rh antigen.
Indirect Coombs'
Blood test performed on cord blood to determine whether fetal blood contains maternal antibodies to the Rh antigen.
Direct Coombs'
Procedure used to alternately remove a small amount of the infant's blood and replace it with an equal amount of donor blood when severe Rh incompatibility is present.
Exchange transfusion
A group of disorders caused by a metabolic defect that results from the absence of, or a change in, a protein, usually an enzyme and mediated by the action of a certain gene. Examples include phenylketonuria and galactosemia.
Inborn errors of metabolism
A head circumference that measures more than three standard deviations below the mean for age and gender; brain growth is usally restricted and mental retardation is common.
Microcephaly
Urethral meatus opens below te glans penis or anywhere along the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.

Urethral meatus opens on the dorsal surface of the penis.

Abnormal development of the bladder, abdominal wall, and symphysis pubis that causes the bladder, urethra, and ureteral orifices to be exposed.
Hypospadias; epispadias; exstrophy of the bladder
Enlargement of the ventricles of the brain, usually as a result of an imbalance between production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is characterized by a bulging anterior fontanel, an abnormal increase in the circumference of the head and an increasing CSF pressure.
Hydropcephalus
Anatomic abnormalities of the heart that are present at birth; ventricular septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot are two common forms of this type of these abnormalities.
Congential heart defects
Complex deformity of the ankle and foot that includes forefoot adduction, midfoot supination, hindfoot varus, and ankle equinus; these deformities are described according to the position of the ankle and foot.
Most common form of this deformity in which the foot points downward and inward in varying degrees of severity.
Congenital club foot; talipes equinovarus
Most common congenital anomaly of the nose characterized by a bony or membranous septum located between the nose and the pharynx; it may be unilateral or bilateral.
Choanal atresia
Most common defect of the CNS that result from failure of the neural tube to close at some point; there are two categories of this defect, namely___________and_______________.
Spina bifida; spina bifida occulta; spina bifida cystica
Form of spina bifida cystica (a neural tube defect) in which an external sac containingthe meninges and spinal fluid protrudes through a dect in the vertebral column.
Meningocele
Form of spina bifida cystica (a neural tube defect) in which an external sac contianing the meninges and spinal fluid, and nerves protrudes through a defect in the vertebral column.
Myelomeningocele
Herniation of the brain and meninges through a skull defect, usually at the base of the neck.
Encephalocele
Type of neural tube defect characterized by the absence of both cerebral hemispheres and the overlying skull. It is incompatible with life.
Anencephaly
Covered defect of the umbilical ring into which varying amounts of the abdominal organs may herniate. It is covered with a peritoneal sac.
Omphalocele
Herniation of the bowel through a defect in the abdominal wall to the right of the umbilical cord. No membrane covers the content.
Gastroschisis
Passageway from teh mouth to the stomach ends in a blind pouch or narrows into a thin cord; thus, a continuous passageway to the stomach is not present.
Esophageal atresia
Abnormal connection between the passageway described above and the trachea.
Tracheoesophageal fistula
Disorder characterized by displacement of the abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity.
Diaphragmatic hernia
Commonly occurring congenital midline fissures or opening in the lip, palate, or both resulting from failure of the primary palate to fuse.
Cleft lip and cleft palate
Spectrum of disorders related to abnormal development of the hip in which there is a shallow acetabulum, subluxation, or dislocation; it may appear at any time during fetal life, infancy, or childhood.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)
Erroneous or abnormal sexual differentiation.
Ambiguous genitalia
Embryonal tumor that may be solid, cystic, or mixed; it is composed of at least two and usually three types of embryonal tissued: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Teratoma