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51 Cards in this Set

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1) Navaho Code Talkers
William Wilson- lied about his age and went to the Marine Corps. He was recruited for one of the most important projects of the war. The marines sought to use a code based on the Navajo language which was very complex. Wilson and his fellow Navajo recruits trained as radio operators and helped devise a basic code. Navajo words represented the first letter of their English words. William became a tribal judge, the code talkers horizons were broadening
2) The Bataan death march
The Japanese force marched their captives to prison camps 80 miles away. Guards denied the prisoners food and water and bayoneted or beat to death those who fell behind. As many as 10000 Filipinos and 600 Americans died on this march. Filipino civilians suffered horribly. Tens of thousands of refugees and prisoners was died under Japanese occupation.
3) The Doolittle raid
did little to harm Japan but it had an enormous psychological impact on Japanese leaders. April 18, sixteen American B-25s appeared over the skies of Japan. They released bombs above Tokyo and other cities and then when they ran out of gas they crashed their planes in china. This pushed Japanese commander Yamamoto to take action.
4) The battle of Midway
Japan’s target was the midway if they could take it they would have a secure defensive perimeter far from the home islands. The code breaking machines of the U.S. deciphered Japanese messages. This time Americans weren’t surprised and were waiting for Japan to attack. It was in June 1942, and was a turning point into eh Pacific war. Now Japan on the defensive
5) The “Europe First” Strategy
Germany American war planners realized Germany was a bigger threat to the U.S. than Japan. If Germany conquered the Soviet Union, it might directly threaten the U.S. Called for the U.S. to work first with Britain and the USSR to defeat Germany.
6) Winston Churchill
British prime minister disagreed how to wage war against Germany. Blocked Stalin’s plan to make America attack German troops away from Soviet Front. British commanders did not want a large scale invasion of Europe. He argued that it was essential to win control of the North Atlantic shipping lanes first and promoted air attacks on Germany and a smaller, safer attack on Axis positions in North Africa. He meant to halt the Germans in North Africa and so protect British imperial possessions in the Mediterranean and the oil rich Middle East.
7) Joseph Stalin
Soviet premier. Stalin pressed for British and American troops to attack German troops away from the Soviet front
8) The second- front controversy
-By the spring of 1943 German advances has been stalled and like Japan, from this point on Germany was in defense. Relations among the Allies remained precarious as the U.S. and Britain continued to resist Stalin’s demand for a second front.
9) Battle for Stalingrad
On the Soviet front, against all odds the soviets hung on fighting block by block for control of Stalingrad in the cold to defeat the German Sixth Army in early 1943.
10) The War production board-
established by Roosevelt in early 1942 had the enormous task of allocating resources and coordinating production among thousands of independent factories.
11) War time gov’t business interdependence
American businesses overwhelmingly cooperated with government war production plans. The massive retooling necessary to produce planes or tanks instead of cars would be really expensive and leave manufacturers dependent on the federal government. The government guaranteed profits to industry allowing them to charge the government for the cost of producing items plus a fixed amount as a profit.
12) American universities and war research
Wartime needs created a new relationship between science and the U.S. military. The fed. Gov’t mobilized scientists and engineers for the war effort, millions of dollars went to America’s largest universities. These fed. Sponsored research programs developed important new technologies of warfare such as radar and the proximity fuse
13) Manhattan Project
the most important focus of gov’t sponsored scientific research. It was a secret effort to build an atomic bond. Roosevelt thought Germany was building one so he did too. The world’s first sustained nuclear chain reaction was achieved at University of Chicago in 1942 and in 1943 the fed gov’t set up a secret community for atomic scientists and their families at Los Alamos New Mexico.
14) March on Washington movement
A Phillip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, proposed a march on Washington D.C to demand equal access to jobs in defense industries.
15) Executive order No. 8802-
Roosevelt offered the March on Washington movement a deal. It prohibited discrimination in war industries and in the government. It guaranteed the right to war industry jobs on an equal basis with white workers, more than 1.5 million black Americans migrated from the south to the industrial cities of North and West during the war.
16) The bracero program and wartime Mexican workers
200,000 Mexican farm workers or braceros were offered short term contracts to fill agricultural jobs left vacant as Americans sought well paid war work. Mexican and Mexican American workers alike faced discrimination and segregation but they seized the economic opportunities newly available to them. In 1941 not a single Mexican American worked in L.A. ship yards
17) Women’s wartime work
women were not seen suited for industrial jobs but as labor shortages began to threaten the war effort employers let them work
18) Rosie the riveter
- glorified by the government’s war manpower commission. She was an inspiring image but she did not accurately represent women in the American work force.
19) No strike no lockout pledge
- The fed gov’t attempted to make sure that labor strikes would not interrupt production. Less than a week after Pearl Harbor a white house labor management conference agreed to this.
20) National war labor board
Created by Roosevelt to settle labor disputes. It forged a temporary compromise between labor union demands for a closed shop in which only union members could work and management’s desire for open shops
21) War Labor Disputes (Smith Connally Act
gave the president authority to seize and operate any strike bound plant deemed necessary to the national security
22) The office of price administration
1942 established a nationwide rationing system for consumer goods such as sugar coffee and gasoline. By 1943 it had instituted a point system for rationing food.
23) Office of War information
- took charge of domestic propaganda and hired Hollywood filmmakers and NY copywriters to sell the war at home
24) Detroit race riots of 1943
Racial warfare bloodied the streets of Detroit in June. White mobs, undeterred by police roamed the city attacking blacks. Blacks hurled rocks at police and dragged white passengers off streetcars. At the end of thirty hours of rioting twenty five blacks and nine whites lay dead.
25) Zoot suit riots
Young Mexican American gang members or pachucos had adopted the zoot suit a long jacket with wide padded shoulders loose pants below the knee and a hat and dangling watch chain. It was a political statement and some young men wore it as a purposeful rejection of wartime ideals of service and sacrifice. Rumors that pachucos attacked sailors led to violence. For 4 days mobs of white men roamed the streets attacking zoot suitors and stripping them of their clothes
26) The alien registration act
- passed in 1940 made it unlawful to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force or violence or to join any organization that did so. After pear harbor the gov’t drew up on this authority to take 1000s of Germans, Italians and other Europeans into custody as suspected spies and traitors
27) The internment of Japanese Americans
Roosevelt ordered all Japanese Americans in Cali. and Oregon and Washington to be relocated during the war. They were imprisoned as grave because they were of Japanese decent. America’s anger on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor fueled calls for internment. The relocation order forced Japanese Americans to sell property valued at 500 dollars for a fraction of its worth. They were sent to flood damaged land, to intermountain terrain of Wyoming and dessert of Arizona. Camps were demoralizing and behind barbed wire were wooden barracks where entire families lived in a single room.
28) Korematsu v US
- Betrayed by their gov’t almost 6000 interees renounced U.S. citizenship and demanded to be sent to Japan. Some Jap. Am’s sought legal remedy but the Supreme Court up held the gov’ts action.
29) 442 Regimental Combat team
drawn heavily from young men in internment camps- was most decorated unit of its size. Won many different awards
30) Double V Campaign
Victory at home and abroad, intentional groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people saw the war as an opportunity to persuade, embarrass, compel and shame our gov’t and our nation into a more enlightened attitude toward a tenth of its people
31) Congress of Racial Equality
1942 Stressed “non violent direct action and staged sit ins to desegregate restaurants and movie theaters in N. cities and Washington D.C. Civil rights activists influenced by the philosophy of India’s Mohandas Gandhi.
32) Tuskegee Airmen
Pilots trained at the Tuskegee institute in Alabama, saw heroic service in all black units such as the 99th pursuit squadron which won 80 distinguished flying crosses.
33) The war refugee board
Set up refugee camps in Europe and played a crucial role in saving 200, 000 Jews from death.
34) The Teheran conference
Three allied leaders met in Teheran, Iran, in Dec. 1943. Stalin dismissed Churchill’s repetitious justifications for further delaying the 2nd Front. Roosevelt had enough too, he also rejected Churchill’s proposal for another peripheral attack.
35) Operation overload-
3 allied leaders agreed to launch this cross channel invasion of France in early 1944. The Soviet Union promised to aid the Allies against Japan once Germany is defeated.
36) D-Day-
The second front opened in the dark morning hours of June 6, 1944- largest amphibious landing in history, 200000 Allied troops under the command of Am. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower scrambled ashore at Normandy France. 1000s of ships ferried the men within a hundred yards of beaches. When they landed they encountered the enemy- they triggered mines and were pinned down by fire from the Cliffside pillboxes. The allied airborne troops dropped behind German lines
37) Battle of the Bulge
- in Dec. German armored divisions counteracted in Belgium’s Ardennes Fores, hopping to push on through Atwerp to halt the flow of allied supplies through the Belgium port. After weeks of heavy fighting the Allies gained control in Jan 1945. Called this because there was a bulge 60 miles deep and 40 miles wide where German troops had pushed back allied line.
38) The Yalta Conference
called for a summit meeting to discuss a host of political questions including what to do with Germany. The 3 allied leaders met at Yalta in the Russian Crimea in Feb. 1945. Each arrived with definite goals that reflected their desires for the shape of the postwar world. Britain wanted to protect its colonial possessions and to limit soviet power in part by insisting that France can be included in plans for post war control of Germany thus reducing the soviet sphere of influence from one third to one fourth of defeated nation. The Soviet Union wanted reparations from Germany to assist in the massive task of rebuilding at home. They hoped to expand their sphere of influence throughout Eastern Europe and to guarantee their national security. U.S. hoped to expand its influence and control the people.
39) Dumbarton Oaks Conference
approved the U.N organization and through which the U.S. believed it could exercise influence.
40) Harry Truman
Roosevelt died and Truman became pres and commander in chief- he was inexperienced to foreign policy. He did not know about top secret atomic weapons until after president. 18 days into his presidency Hitler killed himself in a bunker and on May 8 Germany surrendered.
41) Postdam conference
began in Mid July- a novice at international diplomacy- was less patient with the soviets than Roosevelt had been. Test of new atomic weapon had been successful.
42) Island hop strategy-
Toward Japan- skipping the most strongly fortified islands whenever possible and taking the weaker ones aiming to strand the Jap armies on their island outposts.
43) Iwo Jima
Feb 1945 while the Big 3 meeting at Yalta, U.S. and Japan troops battled for an Island 5 miles long, 700 miles south of Tokyo. 21000 Jap. Defenders occupied the islands high ground. They were protected from aerial bombardment U.S. forces used to clear the way for an amphibious landing. Marines were slaughtered as they came ashore. For 20 days U.S. forces fought their way yard by yard up a highest mountain. Cost 6821 Am. And more than 20000 Jap. Only 200 Japs survived.
. Okinawa
An island in the Ryukus chain at the southern tip of Japan, from which allied forces planned to mount an invasion of the main Japanese islands. Fighting went on for 2 months. The monsoon rains began in may turning battlefields into seas of mud. The supporting fleet endured waves of mass kamikaze attacks, in which Japanese pilots intentionally crashed bomb laden planes into American ships. 7374 American soldiers and marines died in battle. Almost entire Jap. Garrison of 100000 was killed.
44) Fire bombing of Tokyo
March 9, 1945, 333 American B-29 Super fortresses dropped a mixture of explosives and incendiary devices on a 4 by 3 mile area of Tokyo. Attempting to demonstrate the strategic value of airpower,, the created a firestorm, a blaze so fierce that it sucked all the oxygen from the air, creating hurricane force winds and growing so hot it could melt concrete and steel. Almost 100000 people were incinerated, suffocated or boiled to death in canals where they had taken refuge from the fire. American bombers attacked sixty six Jap. Cities leaving 8 million people homeless killing almost 900000
45) The Postdam declaration
July 26, 1945 the Allies delivered an ultimatum to Japan, promising that the Jap. People would not be “enslaved” It called for the Japanese to surrender unconditionally or face “prompt and utter destruction” Tokyo radio announced that the gov’t would respond with mokusatsu(Kill with silence) or ignore ultimatum
46) Hiroshima
August 6, 1945 a B-29 bomber named after the pilot’s mother, The Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb above the city of Hiroshima. A flash of dazzling light shot across the sky then came a huge purple mushroom cloud forty thousand feet into the atmosphere. The bomb ignited a firestorm, and thousands who survived the initial blast burned to death. 130000 people were killed. Many faced radiation poisoning.
Nagasaki
August 8, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. On August 9 a 2nd atomic bomb fell on Nagasaki killing at least 60000 people. Five days later on the 14th Japan surrendered. The allies promised the Jap. Emperor could remain as the nations’ head.
45) The Postdam declaration
July 26, 1945 the Allies delivered an ultimatum to Japan, promising that the Jap. People would not be “enslaved” It called for the Japanese to surrender unconditionally or face “prompt and utter destruction” Tokyo radio announced that the gov’t would respond with mokusatsu(Kill with silence) or ignore ultimatum
46) Hiroshima
August 6, 1945 a B-29 bomber named after the pilot’s mother, The Enola Gay, dropped an atomic bomb above the city of Hiroshima. A flash of dazzling light shot across the sky then came a huge purple mushroom cloud forty thousand feet into the atmosphere. The bomb ignited a firestorm, and thousands who survived the initial blast burned to death. 130000 people were killed. Many faced radiation poisoning.
Nagasaki
August 8, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. On August 9 a 2nd atomic bomb fell on Nagasaki killing at least 60000 people. Five days later on the 14th Japan surrendered. The allies promised the Jap. Emperor could remain as the nations’ head.