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31 Cards in this Set

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How did Juke help red with the Pop Warner football team?
Did a task analysis of football plays;

broke down each play into components and had him give feedback and praise for each
Process vs product
-Give feedback and reinforcers for the details of the process,
-not just the product (outcome)
Task analysis
-An analysis of complex behavior
-and sequences of behavior
-into component responses
Feedback
-Nonverbal stimuli or
-verbal statements
-contingent on past behavior
-that can guide future behavior
What is feedback's defining feature?
It's stimulus control function
When should feedback occur in order for it to function as an S^D for future behavior?
As close as possible to the future behavior
What type of S^D is feedback?
An analog to an S^D that is relevant to the class of behavior that produces it
Why doesn't public posting of grades reinforce studying?
Because the grade is too delayed after the response of studying (more than 60 seconds);

studying is an analog to avoid the loss of the opportunity for a reinforcer
What were the contingencies for the two groups of anorexics?
Rule-governed analog to avoidance of the loss of the opportunity to receive a reinforcer
What contingency was in place for the carpoolers?
Rule-governed Analog to avoidance of the loss of the opportunity to receive a reinforcer (carpool lane privilege)
What contingency was in place for the kids picking up litter?
Rule-governed analog to avoidance of the loss of the opportunity to receive a reinforcer
What about the $5 incentive for taking kids to dental clinic?
Rule-governed analog to avoidance of the loss of the opportunity to receive a reinforcer
What is the big trick to get people to change their behavior?
Giving people reinforcers
What was the problem with Sid's high school principal and the process vs product?
He concentrated so much on dress codes and hall conduct (the process) that he lost sight of the education the kids were receiving
What are 4 issues involved in putting contingencies on process rather than just the product?
1)First do a careful task analysis
2)Be prepared to spend more effort monitoring performance
3)Guard against your personal biases and cultural prejudices
4)Discriminate between people's merely looking busy and their actually being productive
How could Juke have been sure that his behavioral intervention really was the cause of the improved performance?
Multiple baseline;

replicate the experiment with different baselines for each replication (start each new intervention at a different time)
What do multiple baselines reduce?
The odds that the change in our dependent variable resulted from some coincidental change in some other cause
Multiple-baseline design
-An experimental design
-in which the replications involve baselines
-of differing durations and
-interventions of differing starting times
What covert behavior did Sid think the football team members might have been engaging in?
Visualizing the plays
Covert behavior
-private behavior (not visible to the outside observer)
Does reinforcement work with covert behavior?
Yes
Overt behavior
public or external behavior (visible to others)
What were two examples of the transition from rule control to contingency control?
Football player's shift from learning plays until they are automatic;

driving a manual transmission
Intuition (intuitive control)
control by a concept or set of contingencies the person does not define or describe (same as contingency control)
Shifting from rule control to contingency control
-With repetition of the response,
-control often shifts from control by the rule describing a direct-acting contingency
-to control by the direct-acting contingency itself
When don't you expect a shift?
When a rule describes an indirect-acting contingency with an outcome of more than 60 seconds;

e.g. studying now so you get a good grade at the end of the semester
Why does a drop of water at the end of behavioral chain reinforce all of the responses?
Because there wasn't a pause greater than 60 seconds between any response
Reinforcable response unit
a response or sequence of responses with no disruptions greater than 60 seconds within that response or sequence of responses;

an immediate reinforcer at the end of the sequence will reinforce the entire sequence
Can the reinforceable response unit be longer than 60 seconds?
Yes, as long as there are no 60 second gaps
Rule-governed analog to a reinforceable response unit
A response unit with 60 second gaps
Conditional stimulus
-elements of a stimulus have their value or function
-only when they are combined;
-otherwise, individual elements are relatively neutral