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63 Cards in this Set

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gold standard for OSA dx
polysomnography
OSA: can lead to...
1.behavioral problems
2.poor school performance
T/F: bilateral choanal atresia = surgical emergency
true (cyanosis)
polysomnography does what?
measures...
1.respiratory effort
2.air flow
3.oxygenation
4.HR
DDx for wheezing & respiratory distress
1.bronchiolitis
2.foreign body aspiration
3.GERD
4.TEF
5.vascular sling
T/F: arterioles sensitive to oxygen tension
true
diffusion defects: causes
1.PE
2.congenital vascular abnlities
3.prolonged atelectasis
pectus excavatum
depression in sternum
pectus carinatum
outward deformity of sternum
T/F: obesity can be a cause of restrictive lung disease
true
chest wall abnlities causing restrictive lung disease
1.pectus excavatum/carinatum
2.scoliosis
3.obesity
4.neuromuscular (Guillan, DMD)
restrictive lung disease: space-occupying lesions
1.pleural effusion
2.pericardial effusion
3.chylothorax
4.hemothorax
5.pneumothorax
6.tumors
7.mediastinal masses
8.cystic adenomatous malformations
9.diaphragmatic hernia
10.pulmonary sequestrations
pulmonary hemosiderosis
abnl accumulation of hemosiderin due to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
T/F: recurrent aspiration typically leads to interstitial lung disease
true
pulmonary hemosiderosis: associated w/...
1.cow milk allergy
2.Goodpasture syndrome
Sx of restrictive lung disease
1.exercise intolerance
2.dyspnea
3.SOB
4.clubbing fingers/toes
5.pulmonary HTN
apnea
cessation of breathing > 20 sec
or
breathing pauses w/color changes, hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, or bradycardia
apnea of infancy does/doesn't increase risk of SIDS
doesn't
most common presentation in CF
FTT
CF: inheritance pattern
autosomal recessive
meconium ileus pathognomonic for...
cystic fibrosis
acute life-threatening complications of cystic fibrosis
1.hemoptysis
2.spontaneous pneumothorax
pulmonary problems categorization
1.obstruction
2.restrictive
3.v-q mismatch
4.abnl ventilation control
upper airway
nose -> carina
upper airway obstructions
1.choanal atresia
2.vaginal delivery trauma -> recurrent laryngeal n. damage -> vocal cord paralysis
3.subglottic stenosis (prolonged intubation)
4.laryngomalacia
5.congenital (hemangiomas, laryngeal webs, vascular rings)
small hypopharynx seen in...
Pierre-Robin's syndrome
T/F: bilateral choanal atresia can be life-threatening
true (choanal atresia -> cyanosis -> life-threatening)
vocal cord dysfunction: suspect if...
1.hoarse cry
2.absent cry
inability to pass NG tube: suggests...
choanal atresia
choanal atresia: tx
surgery
vascular rings: tx
surgery
infectious causes of upper airway obstruction in older child
1.epiglottitis
2.peritonsillar abscess
3.retropharyngeal abscess
4.mono
5.bacterial tracheitis
6.croup
non-infectious causes of upper airway obstruction in older child
1.tonsillary & adenoidal hypertrophy
2.anaphylaxis
3.nasal polyps
obstructive sleep apnea: symptoms
1.restless sleep
2.snoring/gasping
3.daytime sleepiness
4.decreased growth velocity
5.behavioral problems
6.poor school performance
Pickwickian's syndrome
OSA + obesity + chronic hypercarbia
OSA: Tx
CPAP
tracheostomy (refractory cases)
OSA --> ?
cor pulmonale --> death
asthma
1.reversible airway obstruction
2.inflammation
3.broncial hyperresponsiveness
bronchospasm
smooth muscle constriction
asthma's inflammatory responses
1.immediate
2.late-phase
most common reason for hospitalization in pediatrics
asthma
asthmatic w/AMS: suggests...
1.hypercarbia
2.significant hypoxemia
asthma dx tests
1.methacholine challenge test
2.exercise testing w/spirometry
asthmatic's XR findings
1.hyperinflation
2.increased bronchial markings
3.focal/segmental atelectasis
most effective form of asthma tx
removing triggers
exercise-induced asthma: Tx
beta-2 agonists 15-30 min before
leukotriene receptor antagonists: examples
montelukast
zafirlukast
zileuton
leukotriene receptor antagonists: target pts
chronic moderate - severe asthmatics
asthmatic w/nl PaCO2 + tachypnea indicates...
BAD SIGN - you're expecting low PaCO2 w/hyperventilation.

impending respiratory failure
asthma classification
1.mild intermittent
2.mild persistent
3.moderate persistent
4.severe persistent
acute asthma exacerbation: tx of choice
inhaled bronchodilators
oral/IV corticosteroids: begin to have effect in x hrs
4-6 hrs
nasal polyps: prompts testing for...
cystic fibrosis
frequent pneumonias + sinus opacification + nasal polyps + sinusitis

dx?
cystic fibrosis
large bulky foul smelling stools + pancreatic insufficiency + rectal prolapse

dx?
cystic fibrosis
cystic fibrosis: Tx
1.chest PT
2.exercise
3.frequent coughing
cystic fibrosis pts: achieve near-nl growth via...
1.pancreatic enzyme replacement
2.fat-soluble vitamin supplements
3.high-calorie, high-protein diets
major contributor to morbidity & mortality in CF pts
respiratory complications
cf pts: hemoptysis -> x blood loss -> emergency
>500ml in 24 hrs
>300ml/day x 3 days
cf pts w/frank blood loss in lungs: Tx
arterial embolization
cf pt w/severe chest pain + difficulty breathing

dx?
spontaneous pneumothorax
spontaneous pneumothorax tx
sclerosis
apnea of infancy: tx
tx underlying disorder