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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What did Dawn do for Nancy?
Did a task analysis of walking. She had her do a behavioral chain (stimulus-response chain)
What does Malott say about passion?
If you are going to accomplish much of significance, you have to be passionate.
Behavioral chain
-A sequence of stimuli or responses.
-Each response produces a change in the environment that
-acts as a discriminative stimulus
-or operandum
-for the next response.
What were two examples of behavioral chains?
Mashed potatoes and Rudolph and the dot on the wall with the chain.
What two functions does a stimulus resulting from one response serve in a behavioral chain?
1) Acts as an S^D for the next response
2) Acts as an S^r (learned reinforcer) for the response that produced it
Dual-functioning chained stimuli
-A stimulus in a behavioral chain
-reinforces the response that precedes it.
-That stimulus also acts as an S^D or operandum for the response that follows it.
Car example
S^D: hand on key in ignition
Behavior: Turn key --> S^r/S^D: car running
Behavior: put car in gear
Two examples of forward chaining
Dawn used forward chaining with Nancy.

Mahoney used forward chaining in toilet training
Forward chaining
-The establishment of the first link in a behavioral chain,
-with the addition of successive links,
-until the final link is acquired.
How did Wilson use forward chaining to help handicapped persons dine?
Did a task analysis of dining and found 3 major sequences (premeal, meal, postmeal).

Used various levels of prompts to reinforce the first link in the pre-meal chain, etc
How did Horner use total-task presentation to teach kids how to brush their teeth?
Task analysis broke down brushing into 15 components.

Instructor would ask a student to do a response in a link;
if they couldn't, the instructor would model the response and verbally instruct;
if that didn't work, the instructor would physically guide and verbally instruct
Total-task presentation:
-The simultaneous training of
-all links in a behavioral chain.
Backward chaining
-The establishment of the final link in a behavioral chain,
-with the addition of preceding links
-until the first link is acquired
What type of problems can students benefit from backward chaining in?
Math problems
What are the three major ways of establishing behavioral chains?
-Forward chaining
-Total-task presentation
-Backward chaining
How was backward training used to teach someone how to put on pants?
Started with trousers pulled almost all the way up;
S^D: pull up your pants

Continued with decreasing levels of pants upedness until the pants were on the floor
How did Max use backward chaining to teach Jimmy how to eat with a spoon?
Used physical guidance and started with a spoon full of applesauce near Jimmy's mouth, all the way back to Jimmy doing the whole chain by himself
What was Jimmy's problem with eating?
He ate too fast and was messy;

he ate so fast he threw up meals
What did Max use to slow down Jimmy's eating?
Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL);

he extinguished rapid eating (less than 2 seconds between bites) and reinforced slower eating (waiting at least 2 seconds between bites)
Differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL)
-for each response following the preceding response
-by at least some minimum delay
What was wrong with Satoru?
He was extremely disruptive in class
How did Sue deal with Satoru?
Differential punishment of high rate

She gave him a star for every 2 minutes he didn't disrupt;

each star meant 1 minute of recess;

if he disrupted, she reset the timer to 0 and started a new 2 minute interval;

eventually she increased the criterion to no more than one disruption every 3 minutes
What should you remember to do with differential reinforcement of low rates?
"Remember to keep your eye on the donut and not on the hole"
Why wasn't Sue's procedure a differential reinforcement of a low rate?
If she had been reinforcing responding at a low rate, she would have required him to disrupt before she gave him a star
What was the dead student test?
If Sue hadn't noticed that Satoru had died, she would keep putting stars on his paper because he wasn't disrupting
Differential punishment of high rates
-The presentation of an aversive condition
-or the loss or prevention of a reinforcer occurs
-for each response that follows the preceding response
-by less than some minimum delay
When are punishment contingencies used?
As a last resort; when the patient's right to effective treatment requires it
What are the pros of the punishment contingency?
-Can combat built-in outcomes
What are the cons of the punishment contingency?
-People object
-Temporary effects
-Doesn't address cause of problem
-Requires much supervision
-May produce aggression
-Aversiveness may generalize
-May be time consuming
-Presumed aversive condition may be a reinforcer
What is a penalty contingency?
Punishment based on withdrawal of a reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of the undesirable behavior;

includes time-out (loss of access to a reinforcer for a period of time)
WHat are the Pros of the penalty contingency?
-More socially acceptable than punishment
-Often easy to use
What are the cons of the penalty contingency?
-Cooperation can be a problem
-Must have reinforcing environment
-Some object
What is punishment by prevention? (Differential reinforcement of other behavior)
A response prevents the fairly immediate presentation of a reinforcer
What are the pros of punishment by prevention?
-More socially acceptable
What are the cons of punishment by prevention?
-Hard to do
-Requires skilled staff
-Effortful and time consuming
PROS of Differential punishment of high rate
-More socially acceptable than procedures with presentations of aversive stimuli
CONS of differential punishment of high rate
-Won't completely eliminate problem behaviors
-Other procedures better (can use a simple penalty contingency)
What could Sue have done with Satoru instead of differential punishment of high rate?
She could have used a penalty contingency and given him 15 stars, removing one every time he disrupted
PROS of extinction
-more socially acceptable
-not effortful
CONS of extinction
-hard to find and control the reinforcer
-hard to ignore problem behaviors
-may come under stimulus control
-may have extinction bursts
PROS of Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate
-more socially acceptable
-won't completely eliminate response
CONS of differential reinforcement of low rates
-won't completely eliminate response
When should you use differential reinforcement of low rates?
Works in cases where behavior produces reinforcers that are so powerful that the rate is unacceptably high
PROS of Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
-more socially acceptable
-natural environment may maintain it
CONS of differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
-need a powerful alternative reinforcer
-may only be moderately effective
What is differential reinforcement of alternative behavior?
the replacement of inappropriate responses with a specific appropriate response that produces the same reinforcing outcome:

-the removal or reduction of an aversive condition or
-the presentation of a reinforcing condition
What are the PROS of DRA?
-more socially acceptable
-addresses the cause of the problem
-Hard to apply
Establishing operation
a procedure that affects learning and performance with respect to a particular reinforcer or aversive condition
PROS of E.O.
-more socially acceptable
-improves quality of life of participant
-addresses the cause of the problem
CONS of E.O.
-May be difficult to do
-May not be completely effective