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39 Cards in this Set

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recombinant DNA
a DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources
genetic engineering
the direct manipulation of genes for particular purposes
biotechnology
the manipulation of living orgs or their components to produce useful products
gene cloning
the proudction of multiple copies of a gene
restriction enzyme
a degrading enzyme that recognizes and cuts up DNA (including that of certain phages) that is foreign to a bacterium
restriction site
a specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a cut site by a restriction enzyme
sticky end
a single stranded end of a double stranded DNA restriction fragment
DNA ligase
a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalenet bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
cloning vector
a agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering a plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an ex, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection
nucleic acid probe
in DNA tech, a labeled single stranded nucleic acid molecule used to tag a specific nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid sample. Molecules hydrogen bond to the complementary sequence wherever it occurs; radioactive or other labeling of probe allows its location to be detected
denaturation
for proteins, a process where a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becomin biologically inactive. For DNA, this seperation of the 2 strands of the double helix
expression vector
a cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaraytic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where eukaroytic gene can be inserted
nucleic acid hybridization
base pairing between a gene and a complementary sequence on another nucleic acid molecule
yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC)
vectors that combine the essentials of a eukaryotic chromosome, an origin for DNA replication, a centromere, and 2 telomeres with foreign DNA
complementary DNA (cDNA)
a DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase; corresponding to a gene but lacks introns present in DNA of genome
electroporation
technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing cells; electricity creates temp holes in cell's plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter
genomic library
a set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or cloning vector
cDNA library
the limited gene library using complementary DNA. The library includes only the genes that were transcribed in the cells examined
PCR 9polymerase chain reaction)
a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules and nucleotides
genomics
the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
gel electrophoresis
the separation of nuclei acids or proteins on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel
southern blotting
a hybridication technique that enables researchers to determine the presence of certain nuclotide sequences in a sample of DNA
restriction fragment and length polymorphisms (RFLP)
differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different pattersn of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes) useful genetic markers for making linkage maps
human genome project
an international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome
chromosome walking
a DNA mapping technique that begins with a gene on other sequence that has already been cloned, mapped, and sequenced and walks along the chromosomal DNA from that locus, producins a map of overlapping restriction fragments
bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)
an artificial version of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of 100,000-500,000 base pairs
DNA microarray assays
a method to detect and measure the expression of 1000s of genes at 1 time. tiny amounts o fa large number of single stranded DNA fragments representing different gnes are fixed to a glass slide, these fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an org, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules
in vitro mutagenesis
a tech to discover the function of a gene by introducing specific changes into the sequence of a cloned gene, reinserting the mutated gene into a cell, and studying the phenotype of the mutant
RNA interference (RNAi)
a tech to silence the expression of selected genes in a nonmamalian org. The methods uses synthetic double stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA
proteomics
the systematic study of the full protein sets encoded by genomes
bioinformatics
the application of computer science and math to genetic and other biological info
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS)
one base pair variation in the genome sequence
gene therapy
the alternation of the gnes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease
vaccine
a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system ot mount defsense against the pathogen
DNA fingerprint
an indiviudal's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes
simple tandem repeats
polymorphic genetic loci that are likely to have a different number of repeats in each individual
transgenic organism
orgs whose genomes carry genes from other species
Ti plasmid
a plasmid of a tumor inducing bacterium that intergrates a segment o fits DNA into the host chromosome of a plant; frequently used as a carrier for genetic engineering of plants
genetically modified organism (GM)
an org that has acquired 1 or more genes by artificial means; also known as a transgenic organism