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50 Cards in this Set

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This is anything that takes up space and has mass.
Matter (independent of gravity)
p.27
What is the difference between mass and weight?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object and weight is how strongly that mass is being pulled by gravity.
What is a pure substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions?
Element
What is a substance consisting of 2+ elements combined in a fixed ratio?
Compound
How many chemical elements does life require?
25
What subatomic particle is ignored when computing the total mass of an atom?
Electrons are about 1/2,000 that of a neutron or proton.
What are the 3 types of Intermolecular Bonds?

(b/w molecules)
1. Dispersion
2. Dipole
3. H-bond
What 2 subatomic particles are almost identical in mass?
Protons and neutrons
1.7x10-24 g
Rank the 3 Intermolecular Forces from strong to weak
H-bond > Dipole > Dispersion
What is the number of protons unique to each element?
Atomic Number
What must be balanced for an atom to have a neutral electrical charge?
Protons (+) and electrons (-)
What does the group number of an element represent?
The number of valence electrons.
What is the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom?
Mass Number
What is the total mass of an atom, usually represented as a close approximation of the mass number?
Atomic Weight
What is an atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons?
Isotope

Isotopes with more neutrons weigh more.
What is the most common Isotope?
Carbon 12 represents 99% of all the C in nature.
What are the 2 types of Isotopes?
1. Stable
2. Radioactive
What nuclei do not lose particles?
Stable Isotope
What nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy?
Radioactive Isotope

Eventually the decay changes the # of protons and therefore the element also changes
What is the ability to do work?
Energy
What is the stored energy of matter due to position or location called?
Potential Energy
What is the fixed state of potential energy an electron has in an atom?
Energy level or electron shell
How does an electron change its shell?
By absorbing/losing an amount of energy equal to the difference in P.E. between an old and new shell.
What does an electron do to move to a shell farther out?
Absorb energy
What does an electron do to move to a shell closer to the nucleus?
Release energy
What are the columns and rows called on a Periodic Table of Elements?
Columns: Groups/Families
Rows: Periods/Series
What are the number of electrons in an atom's outermost shell called?
Valence Electron/Valence Shell
Atoms that have similar chemical properties have the same # of _______
Valence Electrons
Which bond enables 2 atoms to share a pair of valence electrons?
Covalent Bonds
What term describes 2+ atoms held together by covalent bonds?
Molecule
What describes a combination of 2+ different elements?
Compound
What is the degree of attraction between 2 elements?
Electronegativity
Which bond shares electrons equally?
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
What is a bond where electrons are not shared equally; hence one atom is more electronegative than another = stronger pull?
Polar Covalent Bond
_____ bonds are between non-metals; whilst _____ bonds are between metal and non-metals.
Covalent; Ionic
What is a positively charged ion called?
Cation
What is a negatively charged ion called?
Anion
Which bond describes the attraction between an anion (non-metal) and cation (metal/salt)?
Ionic Bond
Which bond transfers electrons from the least electronegative to the most electronegative?
Ionic Bond
What is the strongest kind of bond?
Covalent
Covalent
Hydrogen
Ionic
What bond is described by an H atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom that is also attracted to another electronegative atom (O,N, or F )?
Hydrogen Bond (H-bond)
What is a polar molecule with one end more negative and the other more positive called?
Dipole
What is the attraction between 2 polar molecules where the negative end of one molecule is attracted to the positive end of another molecule?
Dipole intermolecular force
What occurs between 2 nonpolar molecules that have a temporary positive and negative end and causes one molecule to be attracted to another molecule of an opposite charge?
Dispersion intermolecular force
What makes and breaks chemical bonds?
Chemical reactions
What is the chemical equation for Photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H20 = C6H12O6 + 6O2
At what point is Chemical Equilibrium reached?
When reactions no longer have a net effect on the concentrations of reactants and products.
What 4 elements make approx. 96% of all living matter?
C,H,O,N
When is a covalent bond nonpolar?
When both atoms sharing electrons are equally electronegative.
A molecule's biological function is related to its _________.
Shape