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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why is knowledge of unconditioned behavior important for the analysis of learning?
All learning relfects an interaction between the training procedures and preexisting behavior. Therefore, understanding how learning occurs requires an appreciation for unconditioned behavioral mechanisms,i.e., the preexisting behavior.
What is the reflex arc, and who originated this concept?
The smallest unit of unconditioned behavior is the reflex. French Philosopher Rene Descartes originated this term reflex to capture the idea of behavior being a reflection of an eliciting stimulus. The entire unit from stimulus input to response output was termed the reflex arc.
What is a modal action pattern?
Each unit of elicited behavior is made up of a characteristic response and its correcsponding elicitng stimulus. These are called modal action patters. (MAPs) THe phrase action pattern is used insted of response because the activites involved are not restricted to a single muscle movement such as the blink of an eye or flexion of a leg muscle. The word modal is used to signify that most members of the species perform action pattern in question and do so in a highly similar fashion.
What is a sign stimulus?
The restricted set of stimuli that are required to elicit a modal action pattern. exmp: as far as male quail and male turkeys are concerned, the female's head and neck are the "sign" that she is a female.
Why is the concept of motivation required to characterize species typical behavior?
The occurance of many action patterns depends on ones motivational state. Motivational factors have been identified for a variety of modal-action patterns, including agression, feeding, and various aspects of parental behavior. Exmp: in many species courtship and sexual responses occur only during the breeding season. Motivation sets the stage for the fixed action pattern (the elicted behavior)
In what ways do appetitive and consummatory responses differ?
Appetive behavior is fairfly variable behavior that occurs in response to general spatial cues and Consummatory behavior is more stereotyped and restricted behavior that occurs once the organsim encounters an object of the motivational state.
What are the primary characteristics of behavior systems?
They account for a variety of different functions that organisms have to accomplish in their lives: caring for young, grooming, defense,reproduction. THey often consist of a sequence of 3 or more modes of behavior. THe organism moves from one mode to the other. exmp general search to focal search -> food handling and ingestion.
Definition of Unconditioned (or Elicited) Behavior
Behavior that forms the basis for much learning (especially Classical Conditioning) but is not itself learned. exmp:we "instinctively" flinch when we hear a sudden noise, we quickly withdraw our finger when we touch a hot stove.
Two Types of Unconditioned or Elicited Behavior
-Simple Elicited Behavior: reflexes
-More complex elicited behavior: Fixed (Modal) Action Patterns
Formulated the concept of reflexes, he was an extreme dualist; he divided behavior into two classes. Voluntary and Involuntary.
Descartes(dualist) Two classes of behavior.
Voluntary: Behavior goverened by reason, i.e."the mind"
Involuntary- Behavior that is mechanical, like motions of inanimate objects.
Species-typical behavior
Behavior that is characteristic of most members of a species.
(because modal actions patterns are characteristic of a species they are an example of this)
Motivational Factors Affecting Elictied Behavior: BOTTOM LINE
The motivational state "sets the stage" for a fixed-action pattern, whose actual occurence is then elicited by a sign stimulus. In a sense the sign stimulus "releases" the fixed action pattern when the organism is in a particular moticational state. Becauses of this a sign stimulus is sometimes referred to as a "releasing stimulus".
Appetitive Behavior
Is quite variable and occurs to general spatial cues. Exmp: in searching for a patch of food, a squirrel will focus on spatial cues that help indetify trees and bushes that may contain nuts and fruit. (Wide area) Foraging- covers a larger range p24) The appetive sexual behavior of a male involves SEARCHING for the female.
Consummatory Behavior
The completiong or consummation of an instintive response sequence, not to any specific behavior. In feeding system involves the consumption of food. In sexual behavior consisits of the copulatory responses and in defense behavior system, may consit of STRIKE repsonses against the attacker.
Sign stimuli
The restricted set of stimuli required to elicit a modal action pattern. it is often a remarkably small part of the cues that ordinarily precede a fixed-action pattern. (Recall Fancine Gottfried and the silly Wall street males from the intro video)