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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Covalent Bonds: (T or F)
1) Atoms for m a molecule by sharing 1, 2 , or 3 pairs of their valence electrons
2) Covalent bonds can form only between atoms of different elements
3) The greater the no. of electron paris shared, the stronger the covalent bond
4) Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar
Body's most concnetatedform of chemical energy & its molecular formula/structure
-contains 5-C sugar deosyribose, contans bases ademine, guaninee, cytosine & thymine,
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms w/an unpaired electrons in its outermost shell
free radicals
building block of matter that cannont by split into a simpler chemical substance by ordinary reactions
chemical element
smallest unit of matter that retains the porperties & characteristics of an element
an atom that has given up or gained electrons
Parietal layer
the part of a serous membrane that lines the walls of thoracic & abdominal cavities
-the outer wall of a body cavity. "the part of a serous memebrane that lines the walls fo the thoracic & abdominal cavities.
homeostatis's 2 systems
1. endocrine
2. nervous
Positive feedback system
1) contraction of cervix during birth-giving.
2)Blood clotting
Negative feedback system
Increase in blood pressure
Increase in body temperature
The system htat regulates body activities through chemicals transported in blood to various target organs of body
Endocrine system
The system that transports oxygen & nurtirents to cells, protects against disease, carries wastes away from cells
Cardiovascular system
What is mediastinum and what organs are contained in it?
Central thoracic CAvity, houses lung, heart, esophagus, trachea, rib & thymus
The components of the feedback system (5)
Stimulus, receptro, control center, effector, response
HOw is a negative feeback system different from a positive feedback system?
It requires a termination mechanism
Cavity of the heart: Cavity of the lung
Pericardial: PLeural
Draw out the 9 regions in the abdominopelvic area.
Top: Right Hypondrial, Epigasstric, Left Hypochondrial
Middle:Right Lumbar, Umbilical, LEft Lumbar
Bottom: Right Inguinal, Hypogastric, Left Inguinal
Is there such thing as Upper Left Hypodhondrial?
No, it should be Right Hypochondrial
What organs are found in the Right hypochondrial section?
Liver, gall bladder
What organs are found in the Left hypochondrial section?
What organs are found in the Right Lumbar section?
Ascending colon
What organs are found in the Left Lumbar section?
Descending colon
What organs are found in the Right Inguinal section?
part of large intestine
What organs are found in the Left Inguinal section?
part of large intestine & small intestine
What organs are found in the Epigastric section?
part of liver, stomach, pancrease
What organs are found in the Hypogastric section?
urinary blader, m & f reproductive systems
What organs are found in the Umbilical section?
Transverse colon
what 3 Abdominopelvic regions do not require Right or Left?
epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric
coronal is the same as-
frontal: front/back
splene is between what 2 organs?
stomach & diaphragm
esophagus is ____ to trachea
ulna is ______ to radius
gallbladder and descending colon are
humerous is ________ to radius
phalanges are ______ to carpal
Ulna: medial:: radius: ______
front of head: back of head:: frontal : _____________
front of elbow: back of elbow:: front of hand: back of hand
antecubital: olecranal:: palmar: dorsum
shin: calf:: ____ : _______
: sural
Mediastinum is -___ to the lung. it extends from ___ to _____ (front/back) and from ____ to ____ ) (Top/down)
medial. sternum to vertebral column. neck to diaphragm. (see Fig 1.11 on p.18 of Tortera
____ lines the abdominal wall
parietal peritoneum
_____ is the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
serous membrance
heart is ____ to liver
stoamahc is _____ to lungs
diaphragm is _____ stomach
transverse colon is _____ stomaach
small intestine is ______ transverse colon
small intestine is ____ descending colon
Radius is _____ ulna
Ulna is _____ radius
stomach is _____ liver
inferior & posterior
esophagus is ______ trachea
trachea is ______ esophagus
Front/back. close to midline,/farther from midline, towrad hear /away from head, near a limb/farrther from limb, on same side/on differnet side
anterior: posterior
medial: lateral
superior: inferior
pproximal: distal
What are the 2 main body cavities?
Dorsal body cavity includes?
Cranial + Vertebral canal
Ventral body cavity includes?
Thoracic + ominopelvic = ( abdominal + pelvic cavity)
thoracic cavity is ______ to abdominal cavity
what is the diaphragm
a dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
organs inside the ventral body cavity
Meanings in Latin:
(thorac = chest)
Visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal organs (viscera). Parietal peritoneum lines the ______ wall.
abdominal wall.
How are the 4 quadrants drawn?
Through the umbilical cord (belly button) RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ - used more to describe site of abdominopelvic pain, tumor or abnormality
How are the 9 regions drawn?
Top line = subcoastal ine, is inferior to rib cage, across the inferior part of stomach. Bottomw horizontal line, the tarnstrubercular, is drawn inferior to top of hip bone. 2 vertical lines are drawn through clavicles' midpoints.
How many cavities does the thoracic contain?
Pericardial (contains heart) + 2 pleural cavities (contains 2 lungs)
Viscera of the abdominal cavity include?
stoamch, spleen, liver, gallbladdr, small intestine & most of large intestine
What are the functions of serous membrane?
They line the walls of thoracic & adominal cavities & also cover the organs within them. This includes pleura (the lungs), pericardium (heart), & peritoneurm (abdominal cavity)
Label each of hte component of Positive feedback system using birth of a baby as an example.
When labor begins, the cervix of the uterus is stretched ( = stimulus) and stretch-sensivit nerve cells in the cervix (receptors) send never impulses (input) to the brain (control center.) The brain responds by releasing oxytocins (output) which stimulates the uterus (effector) to contract more forecefully (response). MOvement of the baby further stretches the cervix, more oxytocin is released and even more foreceful contractiosn occur. The cycle is broken with the birth of the baby.
Break down the components of Negative feedback system
if a stiulus causes blood pressues ro rise, baroreceptros (rpessure-sensitive nerve cesll, the reeptros) in blood vessels send impulses (input) to the grain (control center). the brain sends impulses (output) to the heart (effector) as a results, heart rate decreases (response) and blood pressure decreases to normal (restoration of moeostasis).
Names these in the anterior of the body: front of skull, eye, ear, cheek, nose , mouth, chin breastbone, navel, hip, groin, hand, pubis , anterior knee, leg, foot, ankle, toes, arm, front of elbow, forearm, wrist, palm fingers
frontal, orbital otic, buccal, naasal, oral, mental, sternal, umbilical, coxal, inguinal, palmar, pubic, patellar, crural, pedal, tarsak, digital or phalangeal
eye, hip, toes, top of foot, back of hand
( in textbook but not in lab handout)
Name these parts in the back of the body (posterior): back of skull, shoulder, shoulder blade, spinal column, back of elbow, betweeen hips, Loin, buttock, hollow behind knee, calf, sole, heel
occipital, acomial, scapular, vertebral, olecranal, sacral, lumbar, gluteal,popliteal, sural, plantar, calcaneal
Back of elbow, back, loin
Olecranal, dorsal, lumbar
Define synthesis & give examples if possible.
Synthesis - invovlds combination of reactants to produce alrger molecules; the reactions are anabolic & usually ergonic
Define decomposition & give examples if possible.
A substance is broken down ; reactions are catabolic & usuallyexergonic
Write out: ammonium, hydronium nitrate, nitrite , bicarbonate
NH(4), H(3)O+, NO(3) _, HCO(3)-
The most common & prevalent polar covalent bond
water(!). Oxygen atom attracts sahred eletron more strongly, so its ahs greater negativity than hydrogen atoms
What other molecules are also polar covalent like water?
NH(3), the nitrogen is also very electronegative
Main difference between Covalent bond (polar & nonpolar) and ionic bonds
Covalent involves equal sharing. ionic bonds - wheree the atom loses (sodium loses entirely) and Cl (-) atom gains entirely
Draw out ATP structure, indicate with ~ the 2 phosphate bonds that can be used to transfer energy. what does this involve? (what tyep of reaction?)
ATP consists of Adenine + RIbose, mkaing up ADenosin and 3 phosphates = adenosine triphosphate (ATP)There're 2 phosphate bonds that can be used to transfer energy. This inovlves hydrolysis of hte last phosphate bond of ATP (!)
Define a protein, what's a peptide bond?
IN reatiosn catalyzed by ATP syntahse, what're substrates & products? IS this exergonic/endergonic reaction?
2 ways to express concentration
moles per liter (mo/l)
How does bicarbonate ions work as a buffer?
IF there's too much H+ (acidic condition), HCO(3) - works as a weak base and remove the excess H + (write out reaction) IF there is a shortage of H+ (basic condition), carbonic acid H(2) CO(3) can work as a weka base, and break down into hydrogen ion & bicarbonate ion.
Name 3 types of carbohydrates.
MOnosaccharides, disaccharides and poly- saccharides
Glycogen 9store form of carohydrate in animals), STarch, the store form in car in plants & main car in food, cellulose (not digest by humans but aids in movement of food through intestines)
glucose (main blood sugar), frustose (found in fruits), galactorse, eoyribose (in danJ), ribose (in RNA)
Write the reaction where 2 monosacchardie combine t o form 1 disaccharide- name this type of reaction. Also the revers & what it's called.
dehydration synthesis: glucose + fructose --> dissachride + water
Reverse = hydrolysis, where sucrose + water to produce glucose + fructose.
MOre about monosaccharides
-contaoin from 3 to 7 carbon atoms,
-end with '-ose" , cell in body break down theeee hexose glucose to produce ATP.
Write out glucose, fructose, & sucrose
C(6) H(12) O(6), C(12) H(22)O(11)
Unique about carbohydrates
-have 2:1 ratio of H:O ratio
special about polysaccharids
-each cotains 10/hndreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis. Unlike simple sugar, they are not soluble in water are not sweet! Main polysacchraride in body is glycogen, made of glucose monomer. (found in liver & skeletal muscle)
are vitains fats?
yes! vit A, D, E & K - all are - they are water solubale
Name some lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids (main lipid component of cell membrane), steroids, eicosanoidss, fatty acids ,fat-soluble vitamins, carotenes, lipoproteins