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69 Cards in this Set

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Hormones that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells
Hemopoeitic Growth Factors
Increases the number of RBC precursors
Erythropoietin / EPO
Hormone produced by the liver that stimulates formation of platelets from megagaryocytes
Thrombopoietin / TPO
Small glycoproteins that are produced by red bone marrow cells, leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells that regulate develpment of different blood cell types
Cytokines
Important families of Cytoikines
Colony Stimulating Factors (CSF's) and Interleukins
Component of Hemoglobin, Composed of four polypeptide chains
Globin
Component of Hemoglobin, four non-protein pigments
Hemes
Beginning of RBC Production
Red bone marrow with a precursor cell called a proerythroblast
RBC Production
Proerythroblast divides several times, producing cells that begin to sythensize hemoglobin. Ultimtely, a cell near the end of the development sequence ejects it nucleus an becomes a reticulocyte.
Cell near the end of the RBC development sequence that loses it's nucleus
Reticulocyte
Cellular Oxygen Defficiency, occurs if too little oxygen enters the blood
Hypoxia
Cells that contain a nucleus but no hemoglobin
White Blood Cells (WBC's) / Leukocytes
Classification of WBC's
Granular and Agranular
Chemical filled cytoplasmic vesicles in WBC's
Granules
Types of Granule Leukocytes
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, and Basophils
Types of Agranular WBC's
Lympphocytes and Monocytes
An increase in the number of WBC's for protective response to stresses such as invading microbes, strenous exercise, anesthesia, and surgery
Leukocytosis
Abnormally low level of WBC's
Leukopenia
Leave the bloodstream and collect at points of pathogenic invasion or inflamation, never return
Granulocytes and Monocytes
Continually recirculate from blood to interstitial spaces of tissues to lymphatic fluid back to blood
Lymphocytes
Process by which WBC's leave the bloodstream, roll along the endothelium, stick to it, and then squeeze between endothelial cells
Emigration
Molecules that help WBC's stick to endothelium
Adhesion Molecules
Active in Phagocytosis, ingest bacteria and dispose of dead matter
Neutrophils and mactophages
Process by which several different chemicals releaed by microbes and inflamed tissues attract phagocytes
Chemotaxis
WBC's that respond most quickly to destruction by bacteria
Neutrophils
Proteins released by Neutrophis that exhibit a broad range of antibiotic activity against bacteria
Defensins
WBC's that arive to sight of infection later than neutrophis, but arive in larger numbers and destroy more microbes
Monocytes
WBC's that leave the capillaries and enter the tissue fluid, release enzymes such as histaminase, phagocytize antigen antibody complexes
Eosinophils
Often indicates an allergic condition or parasitic infection
High Eosinophil Count
WBC's that leave the capillaries, enter tissues, and liverate heparin, histamine, and serotonin at sites of inflamation
Basophils
Types of Lmyphocytes
B cells, T cells and Natural Killer Cells
Effective in destroying bacteria and inactivating their toxins
B Cells
Attack viruses, fungi, transplaned, cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria
T Cells
Attack a wide variety of infectious microbes and certian spontaneously arising tumor cells
Natural Killer Cells
Ordered by a physician to detect infection or inflammation, determine the effects of possible poisoning by chemicals or drugs.
Differential White Blood Cell Count
Myeloid stem cells deveolp into megakaryocyte colony forming ells that, in turn, develp into precursor cells called megakaryoblasts.
Thrombopoetin
Enclosed by a piece of the plasma membrane breakes off from the magakaryocytes in red bone marrow an then enters the blood circulation
Platelet
Function of platelets
Help stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug. Contain granules that when released help clot
Valuable test that screens for anemia and varoius infections
Complete Blood Count
Sequence of responses that stops bleeding
Hemostasis
3 Mechanisms that reduce blood loss
1. Vasuclar Spasm
2. Platelet Plug Formation
3. Bloot clotting (Coagulation)
When arteries or arterioles are dmaged, the circularily arranged smooth muscle in their walls contract immediately
Vascular Spasm
Chemicals in the vesicles of platelets that form blood clots
Thromboxane A2, a prostoglandidn: fibrin-stabilizing factor.
Hormone in platelets that can cause proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle fibers, and fibroblasts to help repair damaged blood vessel walls.
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
Platelets contact and stick to parts of a damaged blood vessel, such as collogen fibers of the connective tissue inderlying the damaged endothelial cells.
Platelet Adhesion
Once platelets have adhered, they extend many projections that enable them to contact and interact with one another, and they liverate the contents of their vesicles.
Platelet Release Reaction
Gathering of new platelets to old platelets becasue of ADp
Platelet Aggregation
Plasma minus clotting proteins
Serum
Gel in blood that consists of a network of insoluble protein fibers called fibrin in which the formed elements of blood are trapped
Clot
Clotting of undamaged blood vessels
Thrombosis
Extrinsic Blood Clotting occurs
Rappidly, Faster than Intrinsic
Tissue protien that comes from outside the blood vessel involved in Extrinsc Pathway
Tissue Factor / Thromboplastin
Thromboplastin / Tissue Factor is a mixture of
Lipoproteins and phospholipids released from the surface of damaged cels
Once X factor is activated
It combines with Factor V in the presence of Ca to form the active enzyme prothrombinase, completing the Extrinsic Pathway
Vitamin K is necesary for
Formation of Clotting factors by hepatocytes: Factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X
Soluablity of VitaminK
Fat Soluable
Dissolves small, inappropriate clots
Fibronolytic System
A clot does not extend beyond a wound site becasuse
Fibrin abslorbs thrombin into the clot, and dispersal of some of the clotting factors by the blood, their concentrations are not high enough to bring about widespread clotting
Powerful inhibitor of platelet adhesion, opposes the actions of Thromboxane A2, produced by endothelial cells and WBC's
Prostacyclin
Antithrombin, Heparin, Activated Protein C
Anticoagulants
Blocks the Action factors of XII, XI, IX, X, and II
Antithrombin
Produced by mast cells and basophils, combines with antrithrombin and increases it's effectiveness in blocking thrombin
Heparin
Inactivates factors V and VIII, the two major clotting factors not blocked by antirthrombin, and enhances activity of plasminogen activators
Activated Protein C
Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
Thrombosis
Blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or a piece of debris that is transported by the blood stream
Embolus
Inhibits vaoconstriction and platelet aggregation by blocking synthesis of thromboxane A2
Aspirin
The surface of erythrocytes contain a genetically determined assortment of glycoproteins and glycolipids that can act as antigens
Isoantigens or Agglutinogens
Blood type is based on the display of
Antigens on RBC's
To react with isoantigens, blood plasma contains
Isoantibodies or Agglutinins