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28 Cards in this Set

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anaphase
stage of mitosis during which the two sets of chromosomes seperate and move away from each other. Composed of anaphase A (chromosomes move toward the two spindle poles) and B (spindle poles move apart.
anaphase promoting complex
A protein complex that promotes the destruction of a specific protein, by catalyzing their ubiquitination. It is a crucial component of the cell cyle control system
aster
star shaped system of mt emanating from a centrosome or from a pole of a mitotic spindle.
catastrophin
protein that destabilizes mt by promoting their depolymerization.
centrosome
centrally located organelle of animal cells that is the primary mt-organizing center and acts as the spindle pole during mitosis, in most animal cells in contains a pair of centrioles
centrosome cycle
duplication of the centrosome (during interphase) and seperation of the two new cenrosomes (at the beginning of mitosis) to form the poles of hte mitotic spindle.
chromosome condensation
process by which a chromosome becomes packed up into a more compact strucure prior to M phase of the cell cycle.
chromatid
one compy of a chromosome formed by DNA replication that is still joined at hte contromere ot the other copy.
cohesin
protein complex that holds sister chromatids together after DNA has been replicated in the cell cycle.
condensin
proteins involved in condensation process. Helps coil DNA.
cyclin-dependent kinase
protein kinase that has to be complexed with a cyclin protein in order to act. Different CDk-cyclin complexes trigger different steps in the cell division cylce by phosphorylating specific target proteins.
cytokinesis
division of cytoplasm of a cell into two.
diploid
a cell or organism containing two sets of homologous chromosomes and hence two copies of each gene or genetic loci.
haploid
has only one set of chromosomes
kinetochore
complex protein containing structure on a mitotic chromosome to which MT attach. Forms on the centrosome of chromosome
M phase
period of euk. cell cycle during which the nucleus and cytoplasm divide.
M phase Cdk
active complex formed at the start of m phase of the cell cycle by an m-cyclin and the mitotic cyclin dependent protein kinase.
metaphase
phase where chromosome are firmly attached to mitotic spindle at the equator.
meiosis
two successive nuclear divisions with only one round of dna replication. Generate 4 haploid cells from 1 diploid cell.
mitosis
division of nucleus involving condensation of dna into visible chromosomes
mitotic spindle
array of mt and associated molecules that forms between the opposite poles of a euk. cell during mitosis and serves to move the duplicated chromosomes apart.
phragmoplast
structure made of mt and membrane vesicles that forms in teh equatorial region of a dividing plante cell.
prometaphase
stage of mitosis that precedes metaphase
prophase
first stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes are condensed but not yet atttached to a mittotic spindle.
sister chromatid
same a chromatid
spindle pole
one of two centrosomes in a cell undergoing mitosis. MT radiating from these centrosomes form the mitotic spindle.
telophase
final stage of mitosis where two sets of seperated chromosomes decondense and become enclosed by nucleur envelopes.
gamma tubulin ring
protein complexes in centrosomes that nucleates MT assembly.