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25 Cards in this Set

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Metabolism
Refers to all the chemicals of the body
Cellular metabolism
chemical reactions to break down organic molecules and to obtain energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Digestive Process
1. Food is digested mechincally (chewing) and chemically to form organic molecules
2. Transported via bloodstream and diffuse into interstitial fluid
3. Enter the cell (nutrient pool)
Catabolism
break down of organic molecules for energy
Anabolism
synthesis (making) of new organic molecules by forming new chemical bonds.
1. needed to perform structural maintenance and repairs
2. support growth
3. produce secretion
Why is ATP needed?
1. Carbs (sugars)
2. Lipids (fats)
3. Amino Acids (proteins)
Cells will break down these organic molecules for energy in what order?
Glycolysis
breakdown of glucose to pryuvic acid
Anaerobic metabolism
does not need O2
Aerobic metabolism
Needs O2
1. needed to perform structural maintenance and repairs
2. support growth
3. produce secretion
Why is ATP needed?
1. Carbs (sugars)
2. Lipids (fats)
3. Amino Acids (proteins)
Cells will break down these organic molecules for energy in what order?
Glycolysis
-breakdown of glucose to pryuvic acid.
-occurs in cytosol
-carbs (glucose and startches) are essential for glycolysis to occur
Anaerobic metabolism
does not need O2
Aerobic metabolism
Needs O2
Glycolysis Process
1 Glucose -> 2 ATP molecules -> + 2 pryuvic acid -> enter the mitochondria
Mitochondrial energy production
-produce 95% of the ATP
-Involves the krebs cycle and electron transport system
-requires oxygen to occur.
TCA Cycle or Krebs Cycle
2 pyruvic acid molecules + O2 -> 2 ATP + H
-H enters the electron transport system
- H + phosphate group + NAD = 36 ATP
-plus H+02 = water
Glucose Storage
-glucose stored in the liver 1st as glygogen
-excess sugar then stored in the muscles as amino acids
-remaining excess of sugar than stored in fat as triglycerides
-excessive intake of sugar is stored as fat which increases weight gain.
Lipolysis
-Lipids are broken down into pyruvic acid
-begins if carb stores are depleted.
Lipid and energy production
provide large amounts of ATP but take longer to break down
Lipid and transport and distribution
-to and from peripheral tissue and liver
-transported as lippoproteins and fatty acids in the blood
Triglycerides
most abundant lipid in body
Lipoproteins
-lipid protein complexes that contain a insoluble glyceride
-LDL (low density) bad cholesterol
-HDL (high density) good cholesterol
Free Fatty Acids
-lipids that diffuse easily across cell membrane. Used when glucose supplies are limited.